Results 1 - 3 of 3
Results 1 - 3 of 3. Search took: 0.013 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] A framework is proposed, along with two objective indices, for the selection of concrete mixture proportions based on sustainability criteria. The indices combine energy demand and long-term strength as energy intensity, and carbon emissions and durability parameters as A-indices, which represent the apathy toward these essential features of sustainability. The decision support framework is demonstrated by considering a set of 30 concretes with different binders, including ordinary portland cement (OPC), fly ash, slag and limestone calcined clay cement (LC3). In addition to the experimental data on compressive strength, chloride diffusion and carbonation, life cycle assessment has been performed for the concretes considering typical situations in South India. The most sustainable of the concretes studied here, for service life limited by chloride ingress, are those with LC3, OPC replaced by 50% slag, and ternary blends with 20% each of slag and fly ash. In the case of applications where carbonation is critical, the appropriate concretes are those with OPC replaced by 15–30% slag or 15% fly ash, or with ternary blends having 20% slag and 20% Class F fly ash.
[en] Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The influence of substrate temperature on the structural, electrical and optical properties was investigated. With increase in substrate temperature, the crystallinity of the films increased. The films exhibited (111) and (100) preferred orientations. All the films showed high transmittance (>85%) in the visible region. The band gap of the films increased with increase in substrate temperature. Films deposited with a substrate temperature of 150 degC showed the lowest resistivity of 2.1 x 10-3 Ωcm and highest mobility of 17.8 cm2V-1s-1. (author)
[en] Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by rf magnetron sputtering of ITO target and the influence of substrate temperature on the properties of the films were investigated. The structural characteristics showed a dependence on the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering. Oxygen deficient films showed (4 0 0) plane texturing while oxygen-incorporated films were preferentially oriented in the [1 1 1] direction. ITO films with low resistivity of 2.05 x 10-3 Ω cm were deposited at relatively low substrate temperature (150 deg. C) which shows highest figure of merit of 2.84 x 10-3 square/Ω