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[en] The current work reports protein extraction from Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass in order to simultaneously generate a potential co-product and a biofuel feedstock with reduced nitrogen content. S. platensis cells were subjected to cell disruption by high-pressure homogenization and subsequent protein isolation by solubilization at alkaline pH followed by precipitation at acidic pH. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the process parameters – pH, extraction (solubilization/precipitation) time and biomass concentration for obtaining maximum protein yield. The optimized process conditions were found to be pH 11.38, solubilization time of 35 min and biomass concentration of 3.6% (w/w) solids for the solubilization step, and pH 4.01 and precipitation time of 60 min for the precipitation step. At the optimized conditions, a high protein yield of 60.7% (w/w) was obtained. The protein isolate (co-product) had a higher protein content [80.6% (w/w)], lower ash [1.9% (w/w)] and mineral content and was enriched in essential amino acids, the nutritious γ-linolenic acid and other high-value unsaturated fatty acids compared to the original biomass. The residual biomass obtained after protein extraction had lower nitrogen content and higher total non-protein content than the original biomass. The loss of about 50% of the total lipids from this fraction did not impact its composition significantly owing to the low lipid content of S. platensis (8.03%).
[en] The structural analysis of glycoproteins is a challenging endeavor and is under steadily increasing demand, but only a very limited number of labs have the expertise required to accomplish this task. This tutorial is aimed at researchers from the fields of molecular biology and biochemistry that have discovered that glycoproteins are important in their biological research and are looking for the tools to elucidate their structure. It provides brief descriptions of the major and most common analytical techniques used in glycomics and glycoproteomics analysis, including explanations of the rationales for individual steps and references to published literature containing the experimental details necessary to carry out the analyses. Glycomics includes the comprehensive study of the structure and function of the glycans expressed in a given cell or organism along with identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases. Glycoproteomics which is subset of both glycomics and proteomics is the identification and characterization of proteins bearing carbohydrates as posttranslational modification. This tutorial is designed to ease entry into the glycomics and glycoproteomics field for those without prior carbohydrate analysis experience.