Results 1 - 4 of 4
Results 1 - 4 of 4. Search took: 0.013 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] CO2 capture and storage can ensure that stringent climate change mitigation targets are achieved more cost-effectively. However, in order to ensure a substantial role for CCS, deployment of CCS is required on a significant global scale by 2020. Currently, the CDM is the only international instrument that could provide a financial incentive for CCS in developing countries. In December 2010 it was decided that CCS could in principle be eligible under the CDM, provided a number of issues are resolved, including non-permanence, liability, monitoring and potential perverse outcomes. The latter issue relates to the concern that that CCS projects could flood the CDM market, thereby crowding out other technologies that could be considered more sustainable. This report, therefore, aims to quantify the possible impact of CCS on the CDM market, in order to assess the relevance of the CDM market objection. However, the analysis in the report is also valid for the role of CCS in other types of international support mechanisms. The first result of this study is a marginal abatement cost curve (MAC) for CCS in developing countries for 2020. Based on existing MAC studies, the IEA CCS Roadmap and an overview of ongoing and planned CCS activities, we compiled three scenarios for CCS in the power, industry and upstream sector, as shown below. The major part of the potential below $30/tCO2eq (70 - 100 MtCO2/yr) is in the natural gas processing sector. Using the MACs for the CDM market, we estimate the economic potential for CCS projects to be 4-19% of the CDM credit supply in 2020. The potential impact inclusion of CCS in the CDM may have is assessed by using several possible CER supply and demand scenarios, as well as scenarios related to market price responsiveness and the role of CDM in the post-2012 carbon market. The impact is estimated to be between $0 and $4 per tonne of CO2-eq, with three out of four scenarios indicating the lower part of this range.
[en] The aim of this report is to help move forward the discussion on low-carbon development strategies (LCDS) towards a useful climate policy instrument. It does so through a historical perspective on the use of an LCDS in a national and international context in order to provide high-level guidance to governments and experts who plan the development of an LCDS. The ultimate aim of a low-carbon development strategy is to catalyse concrete actions that support development with lower emissions. Therefore the process of LCDS development should not focus narrowly on producing a strategy document. Depending on the national context, an LCDS can serve different audiences and have different purposes, adding robustness to the attainment of mitigation actions. Rather than specifying a target or producing a document, an LCDS should provide a process that, depending on the developing country's readiness, meets needs to develop and to fill capacity, knowledge and information gaps. It should bring stakeholders from government, the private sector and civil society on the same page and eventually lead to greenhouse gas emissions that are lower compared to the situation in which the LCDS process had not been undertaken. International support could be sought for an LCDS process, but should not be made obligatory.
[en] Climate change has been on the international policy agenda since the UNFCCC was agreed in 1992. The Kyoto Protocol was the UNFCCC's answer to the call for measures and has been effective in establishing an international carbon market and reducing emissions in some countries and regions. A follow-up of the Kyoto Protocol is currently under discussion. In theory, the economically most efficient form of a global agreement is a global cap-and-trade agreement. It remains highly uncertain whether an effective global climate regime fully founded on another cap-and-trade type of agreement is politically feasible. In addition, it has been suggested that a new agreement would have to be more effective in promoting technology development and diffusion. This report explores the compatibility of a cap-and trade regime with a different form of international agreements to address climate change: technology-oriented agreements (TOAs)
[en] In a large number of short articles several aspects of hydrogen are discussed: (dis)advantages; production; transport; distribution; storage; use in fuel cells, vehicles and houses; market; financing of the hydrogen-based economy; hydrogen transition and developing countries; education and training; developments in the USA and the European Union
[nl]In een groot aantal korte artikelen worden verschillende aspecten van waterstof behandeld: voordelen, nadelen, productie, transport, distributie, opslag, tankstations, toepassing in brandstofcellen en voertuigen en woningen, marktacceptatie, financiering waterstofeconomie, waterstoftransitie en ontwikkelingslanden, onderwijs en opleidingen, ontwikkelingen in de USA en de Europese Unie