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[en] The mechanistic aspect of candle soot particles under controlled atmosphere has been reported. The soot particles were characterized using Fourier transformation Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Hydrophobicity of the candle soot particles was confirmed from the presence of C–H group which enhances water repellency and can be used as filler material for fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings. The layered soot particle on the glass slide exhibits maximum water contact angle of 168°. Roughness of soot particle and various hydrophobic groups involved for obtaining superhydrophobicity were exposed. The Raman spectrum of soot particles revealed the presence of disorder graphene which was confirmed from appearance of D1 band. The agglomeration of candle soot particles has been discussed by measuring fractal dimension (Df) of the particles. The in-depth investigation for bringing the mechanism of formation of soot particle inside the flame reveals the inception of the first particles, growth of soot particles, particle coalescence, agglomeration and oxidation. Here, we have found that the mechanism of particle formation in candle flame involves various steps, in which the sintering as well as coalescence/collision process plays a major role. - Highlights: • Mechanistic aspect for hydrophobicity of candle soot is demonstrated. • Hydrophobicity of soot particles at different exposure time is described. • Agglomeration of soot particles related to fractal dimension is reported. • Mechanism of formation of soot particles in the candle flame is also described
[en] Graphical abstract: Legend for concept diagram. A proposed schematic diagram to show the effect of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signalling molecules and GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes. Downregulated proteins are represented as ▪ in different color for DEHP (red) and MEHP (blue). Upregulated proteins are indicated as ▪. GLUT4 translocation during insulin – stimulated condition is represented in the figure. ▪ – GLUT4 Storage Vesicle, ▪ – GLUT4, ▪ – VAMP2, ▪ – IRAP, ▪ – Syntaxin 4. Re-orientation of Munc 18c during insulin-stimulated condition is represented in the figure. Insulin signalling molecules (IR, pIRTyr1162/1163, IRS1, pIRS1Tyr632, pAktTyr315, pAktSer473, pAkt Thr308, AS160, pAS160Thr642, Rab8A, Rab13, GSK3β and pGSK3βSer9 as well as GLUT4 (cytosol and plasma membrane) proteins were found to be decreased. Proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation such as Syntaxin-4, Synip, SNAP-23 (plasma membrane) were found to be decreased upon DEHP and MEHP treatment whereas Munc18c and SNAP23 (cytosol) proteins were significantly increased upon DEHP treatment and decreased upon MEHP treatment. - Abstract: Di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the plasticizer used in variety of medical and consumer products to impart structural flexibility. DEHP and its primary metabolite mono-(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (MEHP) posed a considerable interest because of their contribution to insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and obesity. Experimental and epidemiological data have shown that DEHP affects blood glucose homeostasis. However, direct effect of DEHP and its metabolite MEHP on insulin signal transduction and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation remain obscure. The present study was delineated to decipher the direct effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes, the rat skeletal muscle model. For this study we have exposed cells with 50 and 100 μM DEHP and MEHP for 24 h followed by insulin stimulation for 20 min. GLUT4 level in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions were analysed by western blot analysis and found to be significantly decreased. Further, DEHP and MEHP treatment significantly altered the insulin signalling molecules and proteins involved in GLUT4 translocation (Rab8A (Ras related proteins in skeletal muscle), insulin – regulated amino peptidase (IRAP), synaptosomal – associated protein 23 (SNAP23), Syntaxin4, Munc18c) from cytosol to plasma membrane. Impaired GLUT4 in the plasma membrane resulted in decreased 14C-deoxy glucose uptake. 14C-glucose oxidation and glycogen content were also significantly decreased in treated groups. In essence, the present study is first of its kind to show the direct adverse effects of DEHP and MEHP on insulin signal transduction and GLUT4 translocation in cultured L6 myotubes. Further, MEHP is found to be more effective than DEHP as a result of its differential structure and physico-chemical properties.
[en] This paper studies the experimental and exergy analysis of solar still with the sand heat energy storage system. The cumulative yield from solar still with and without energy storage material is found to be 3.3 and 1.89 kg/m2, respectively for 8-h operation. Results show that the exergy efficiency of the system is higher with the least water depth of 0.02 m (mw = 20 kg). Competitive analysis of second law efficiency shows that the exergy efficiency improves the system by 30% than conventional single slope solar still without any heat storage. The maximum exergy efficiency with energy storage material is found as 13.2% and it is less than the conventional solar still without any material inside the basin.
[en] The Tiruchengode pegmatoidal granite is emplaced in a high-grade terrain represented by amphibolite-facies gneisses and the associated Satyamangalam supracrustals of archaean-proterozoic age in central Tamil Nadu. This calc-alkaline granite is post-tectonic and peraluminous in nature. Its modal and chemical composition corresponds to granite (s.s.). It shows depletion of Y, Th, Rb, P and Ti when compared to the archaean high-level granite. Rb-Sr whole rock isochron data of the granite yields an age of 390 ± 40 Ma with an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.71002 ± 0.00038. A positive correlation of SiO2 Na2O+K2O, Rb/Sr, and negative correlation of CaO, FeOt and TiO2 with Differentiation Index' indicates operation of fractional crystallisation process in the formation of the granite. However, the chemical and mineralogical characters suggest that the Tiruchengode granite is a S-type granite formed in a continental collision tectonic setting showing later abortive rifting. Presence of numerous metasedimentary xenoliths within the granite and the higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio also indicate its S-type character. It is likely that the Pan-African tectonothermal event which started during late proterozoic-early palaeozoic and extended during middle palaeozoic times (390 Ma) might have reactivated the megalineaments resulting in crustal instability and generation of the S-type granite. (author). 30 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs