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[en] Hydrophobicity is known to play a key role in the biological distribution of materials but is often an overlooked parameter when conjugating targeting agents, drugs, and dyes to dendrimers. This review examines the impact of hydrophobic variation in stochastically conjugated dendrimers as well as materials where synthetic methods or approaches to purification provide more controlled samples. Hydrophobic interactions are considered for three general classes: (1) terminal functional group modifications, (2) bioactive small molecules chosen to interact with receptors and proteins as targeting agents and/or drugs, and (3) imaging agents to track biological activity. Impacts on membrane interaction and cellular uptake, biodistribution, interaction with transport proteins, and pharmacokinetics are discussed. The size range of the dendrimers discussed is ~ 1–10 nm.
[en] We present a remanence measurement method using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to detect trace amounts of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Based on this method, a one-dimensional scanning system was established for imaging. The system was calibrated with 25 nm diameter Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs), and the sensitivity of the NPs was found to be 10 ng at a distance of 1.7 cm and the spatial resolution was ∼1 cm. A theoretical model of this system was developed and applied to the deconvolution of scanned images of phantoms with two NP injection spots. Using the developed SQUID system, we were able to determine not only the amount and horizontal positions of the injections, but also their depths in the phantoms. (note)