Results 1 - 10 of 23
Results 1 - 10 of 23. Search took: 0.023 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] As Germany decided to use hydrogen to store huge quantities of renewable energies, this report aims at assessing the opportunities associated with hydrogen in the context of energy transition. The author addresses the various techniques and technologies of hydrogen production, and proposes a prospective economic analysis of these processes: steam reforming, alkaline electrolysis, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolysis, and other processes still at R and D level. He gives an overview of existing and potential uses of hydrogen in industry, in energy storage (power-to-gas, power-to-power, methanation) and in mobility (hydrogen-mobility could be a response to hydrocarbon shortage, but the cost is still very high, and issues like hydrogen distribution must be addressed), and also evokes their emergence potential
[en] The authors of a first article propose a discussion of the impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on the electric power system: strong decrease of demand and modification of the load curve, strong price decrease with a negative impact of actors' incomes, instability of the electricity system with reduced margins (discussion of the situation in Germany and UK). A second document proposes a similar discussion from the point of view of RTE. It addresses the evolution of electricity consumption (situation before the crisis, issue of assessment of the health emergency, assessment of the decrease of consumption related to the health crisis and comparison with meteorological impacts and with social movements of December 2019, evolution of the daily user profile, of industrial profiles, and in the housing sector, comparison with neighbouring European countries, suitable character of RTE's model), the electricity production (evolution, impact on trans-border electric power exchanges, risks for the production-consumption balance due to the stopping of the economic activity), the system operation (evolution of CO2 emissions, evolution of the renewable energy share), and the economic situation (evolution of electricity prices and consequences)
[en] After a discussion of the characterization of the security of supply (match between supply and demand on the long and medium terms), and having shown that the planned closure of steerable capacities in Europe should be better taken into account in order to guarantee the security of supply before 2030, this note comments the rate of development of intermittent renewable energies. It notices that these energies have a smaller guaranteed power, outlines that France, Germany and Belgium display the highest deficits of steerable power, that a high share of intermittent renewable energy within the energy mix increases the probability of grid destabilization, and increases the steering complexity, and that it is necessary to adapt grids and to develop demand flexibility. The authors outline that energy transition is poorly coordinated at the European level, which increases this weakening. Some recommendations are finally stated. An appendix presents the main hypotheses, uncertainties and observations related to this study.
[en] The success of the Paris Agreement in rallying the world to take collective action against climate change and global warming has highlighted the stark challenge that lays ahead: Humankind must achieve a net zero carbon emissions target by the second half of this century. If the goal of keeping warming within 2 deg. C is to be met, all countries will have to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 30% more than the amount that was pledged in the run-up to the Paris conference in December 2015. This makes the action taken over the next decade absolutely critical in reaching this goal. The fact that affordable fossil fuels are likely to remain readily available is certain to complicate this collective effort even further. Together with the US and China, the European Union will have to go beyond its goal of reducing its emissions by 40% of its 1990 levels by 2030. This means it will have to both lower its consumption of fossil fuels - coal in particular - and create a credible carbon price signal for its economy by establishing a floor price in its Emissions Trading System (ETS) and possibly a European carbon tax. France, for its part, must concentrate on reducing emissions from transport, residential and commercial housing and agriculture as its emissions from electricity generation are already very low. Having brought down its emissions by close to 19% since 1990, France is clearly committed to taking climate action. The economic crisis notwithstanding, this reduction comes mostly from the manufacturing sector and energy production itself. However, if the country is to reach carbon neutrality by the second half of the 21. century without hampering its competitiveness, it will have to rethink the scope and rate of action to be taken. (authors)
[en] Storing electricity is undoubtedly a major worldwide issue in the energy transition, since it is indispensable for uploading electricity from intermittent renewables (wind power and photovoltaics) to the grid. The value of storing electricity is related to the services obtained, especially in areas where the grid is insufficient. The centralization of hydroelectricity - still, by far, the prevailing technology - keeps it from satisfying all needs. The rapidly lowering cost of lithium-ion batteries represents an opportunity, especially for transportation, electricity grids and, to a lesser extent, consumers who produce their own current. Battery storage can compete with others forms of technology or services for managing flexibility: steering demand (load management), storing heat, etc. For mainland France, it would be utopian to imagine an electricity mix based only on hydro, wind and photovoltaic power and the storage of electricity, since its cost would soar within a foreseeable period of time. (authors)
[fr]Au niveau mondial, le stockage de l'electricite est sans aucun doute l'un des defis majeurs de la transition energetique, car il est indispensable a l'integration dans le systeme electrique des energies renouvelables intermittentes (EnRi), l'eolien et le photovoltaique. La valeur du stockage d'electricite est liee aux differents services qu'il peut rendre, particulierement dans les zones ou le reseau est insuffisant. L'hydraulique est encore, de tres loin, la technologie predominante, mais elle est centralisee, ce qui ne permet pas de repondre a tous les besoins. La baisse rapide des couts des batteries Li-Ion est une opportunite, notamment pour la mobilite et pour differents services aux reseaux electriques et, dans une faible mesure, aux auto-consommateurs. Le stockage par batterie peut etre en competition avec d'autres technologies ou services permettant de gerer la flexibilite: pilotage de la demande (effacements), stockage de chaleur, etc. En ce qui concerne la France metropolitaine, un mix electrique compose uniquement d'hydraulique, d'eolien, de photovoltaique et de stockage parait utopique, tant son cout serait enorme a un horizon de temps previsible. (auteurs)
[en] As France's objective is to reach carbon neutrality by 2050 according to the Paris agreement and to the more recently announced policy, this means that France's energy system will then rely on three pillars: de-carbonated electricity, biomass, and renewable heat. Thus, this note aims at discussing the role of fossil gas in the French energy mix by 2050. It first notices that, in highly carbonated countries, natural gas is an energy of transition which is used to decrease CO2 emissions, but that parameters of this transition phase are different in France, notably in relationship with thermal regulation. Then, gas usages by 2050 are discussed, and three of them are still feasible: transports, flexible electric power production, and industry. The authors discuss whether a demand for specific gas usages can be satisfied by 'green gas' within the context of development of various renewable gas production processes (production of bio-methane, pyro-gasification, methanization). They notice that the use of renewable gas would increase the bill for consumers, and be more expensive than the use of heat pumps for old housings.
[en] In 2011, Germany began a radical energy policy, or 'Energiewende', with the aim of completely abandoning nuclear power by 2022 and then achieving an 80-95% reduction in the country's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. By this date, the country will therefore have to be producing its electricity almost completely without the use of gas, oil and coal, having replaced 80% of these sources with renewable energies. Germany is a rich country with one of the most competitive industries in the world. Its environmental commitments have been clearly stated and Energiewende, which is widely discussed throughout the country, has so far seen strong support from the population, despite the expected increases in the price of electricity which, however, is already almost twice as expensive as in France. Germany therefore seems to hold the winning cards required to successfully implement its energy transition. However, many difficulties need to be overcome if this energy policy is to succeed, such as the development of the national power grid, the cost and financing of the necessary investments, improved electricity storage techniques, the acceptability of the planned increases in the price of electricity or the financial difficulties experienced by solar panel manufacturers as a result of the sharp reduction in subsidies and competition from Asia. In addition, recent political dissent within the government regarding the measures implemented to achieve its stated goal has slowed down the federal decision-making process on this matter. Finally, Germany's decision is not without consequences for its European neighbours. It is upsetting and weakening the supply and demand balance of the European energy system and putting some operators in a difficult position. The eyes of all energy world observers are therefore riveted on the changes taking place in Germany, because they will have significant consequences for the entire European Union, and even beyond. Contents: - The ambitious goal of Energiewende: stop using nuclear power and also, ultimately, fossil fuels; - The use of fossil fuels is unavoidable for ensuring the switch to alternative energies; - The development of renewable energies, spearhead Energiewende, faces many challenges; - The costs of Energiewende are as yet undetermined, but they will generally be very high and ultimately borne by the German consumer; - Energiewende is the result of a sovereign decision not without risk to the equilibrium of the European energy policy
[en] While it was not talked about in France a few months ago, unconventional gas (CNG) have made a grand entrance in the energy landscape. It is the U.S. that the techniques for extracting these gases trapped in rocks such as sandstone and shale have been perfected and have open access to new and very large deposits. The consequences are serious because facing the depletion of oil resources, these gases could represent almost double the gas reserves so-called 'conventional'. In total, the world would be assured of having more than one hundred years of use if it continued at its current pace. The impact of these new resources on the price of gas is already significant. The economic crisis and the decline in imports in the U.S. have released quantities of gas are transferred to other markets, driving prices down spots on other continents, remarkable phenomenon at a time when commodity prices tends to increase. This drop is hardly noticeable, however the French consumer, for which the price of gas, indexed in long-term contracts to over 80% on the price of oil continues to increase. The energy balances are changed, many uses is now directing the gas to the detriment of coal, nuclear - which recovery is delayed - and even renewable energy. Regarded by some experts as the greatest energy revolution of recent decades, these gases there are nevertheless questions about the impact of their operations on global warming, environmental (noise, emissions, footprint, pollution risk aquifers, use of large amounts of water) and on the economic activities associated with it. In France, authorizations permits have recently sparked controversy. The Ministers in charge of industry and sustainable development launched in February 2011 a fact-finding mission whose results must be communicated in June 2011. The work schedules of manufacturers have been adapted to take account of this mission, and no exploration work will take place by the end of the mission. Contents: - Improved production techniques gives access to an abundant resource; - Current global conditions are very favorable for the development of shale gas; - A revolution that gas could upset the global energy picture
[en] This article proposes an overview of the German situation regarding the implementation of its energy transition policy (Energiewende) which mainly comprised phasing out nuclear and fossil energies, and their replacement by renewable energies. The authors notably comment figures and tables which illustrate the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions in Germany, France and Europe, the evolution of wind and photovoltaic installations in Germany, the status of the energy mix and the shares of renewable energies in primary consumption in Germany and in France, the electricity productions from the different sources in Germany and in France, the structure of electric power tariffs in Germany and in France. Focusing on the German case, they outline that the objectives defined for 2020 for renewable energies are almost reached, but what comes next remains uncertain. They also notice that the objective of phasing out nuclear in 2022 is kept. They discuss the various difficulties faced by the Energiewende: a too slow improvement of energy efficiency, a development of electric vehicles facing realities of the automotive industry, a difficult but necessary phasing out coal. They outline two main challenges: to face some resistance by the population: the risk of black-outs due to the difficult management of renewable intermittency, and a high level of expenses which are mainly paid by small consumers. The future of this policy may also been put into question again after the elections of September 2017
[en] In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, the German authorities launched the country's energy transition, or Energiewende. With near unanimous support of Germany's citizens, it was seen as a society-wide project. The enthusiasm the Energiewende generated soon spread beyond the Rhine. Indeed, for many French people it became the model to follow. Replacing nuclear energy and fossil fuels with renewable energy sources that were local when possible, developing electric mobility and making progress towards a zero carbon economy were all virtuous goals. What's more, it seemed they could be attained over a relatively short period of time and at reasonable cost. Today, the Energiewende's future looks less bright. While Germany produces a third of its electricity from renewable energy, this comes at a high price. The cost of electricity for small consumers more than doubled between 2000 and 2013. At the same time, the country continues to rely on coal to produce a large share of its electricity and still has one of the highest levels of CO_2 per person in Europe. But Germany's population is divided about closing its coal-fired and lignite power plants, not to mention doing so would jeopardize its energy supply. Add to this the fact the massive development of intermittent renewable energy sources has made the German power grid unstable and has necessitated the construction of thousands of kilometers of high voltage lines amidst strong local opposition. Lastly, electrifying the transport sector could serve to compound the series of scandals that have hit the automotive industry. Against this backdrop, the coalition government formed following the September 2017 federal elections could very well lower the bar for the Energiewende. (author)