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[en] The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potentials of number of selected Biomass Energy Technologies (BETs) have been assessed in Vietnam. These include Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) based on wood and bagasse, direct combustion plants based on wood, co-firing power plants and Stirling engine based on wood and cooking stoves. Using the Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) model, different scenarios were considered, namely the base case with no mitigation options, replacement of kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) by biogas stove, substitution of gasoline by ethanol in transport sector, replacement of coal by wood as fuel in industrial boilers, electricity generation with biomass energy technologies and an integrated scenario including all the options together. Substitution of coal stoves by biogas stove has positive abatement cost, as the cost of wood in Vietnam is higher than coal. Replacement of kerosene and LPG cookstoves by biomass stove also has a positive abatement cost. Replacement of gasoline by ethanol can be realized after a few years, as at present the cost of ethanol is more than the cost of gasoline. The replacement of coal by biomass in industrial boiler is also not an attractive option as wood is more expensive than coal in Vietnam. The substitution of fossil fuel fired plants by packages of BETs has a negative abatement cost. This option, if implemented, would result in mitigation of 10.83 million tonnes (Mt) of CO2 in 2010
[en] Luminescent rare earth nanoparticles such as lanthanum oxalate (LaOX) and metal Europium (Eu) nanoparticles (NPs) with versatile applications in technology and medicine have successfully been synthesized using reverse micelles and gamma radiolysis methods. The present study espouses the versatility of both the methods forming monodisperse, stable nanorods at room temperature. Synthesized particles were characterised using UV-Vis, photoluminescence, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. (author)
[en] Greenhouse-gas emission mitigation has been estimated for the use of existing and mature biomass technologies. A general methodology has been developed to determine potential amounts of residues that can be made available for energy purposes and the resulting fossil-fuel replacement from utilization of these residues. The consequent reductions in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in CO2 equivalents for a time horizon of 20 years, as well as costs of abatements, were calculated. Both traditional and improved energy uses are considered. (author)
[en] In this paper, an attempt has been made to estimate the annual emission of certain greenhouse and other gases and substances from biomass energy sources in selected countries of Asia. For this purpose, the reported values of the different emission factor for biomass combustion have been compiled from an extensive literature review. From the compiled values, a set of emission factors of different gases/pollutants for each fuel-combustion system combination is obtained for each country. The emission factors for the carbon containing gases, i.e. CO2, CO and CH4, are corrected by multiplying each emission factor by a correction factor to avoid over- or under-estimation of total carbon emission. Estimated biomass energy use by technology and the corrected emission factors are used to estimate the total emissions in the selected countries. (Author)
[en] Developing countries of Asia account for most of the world's animal population. The animal wastes produced annually in these countries constitute a major source of methane and other greenhouse gases (GHG). For 23 countries of Asia, we estimate that 17,730 Gg of CH4, 1,290,000 Gg of CO2 and 179 Gg of N2O are emitted from animal wastes. Using the biogas that can be produced from recoverable animal wastes as a substitute for kerosene in cooking will reduce net GHG emissions by 53.1, 19.5 and 61.1% for CH4, CO2 and N2O respectively. (author)
[en] The potential of savings in the biomass consumed for energy in seven Asian countries--China, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Vietnam--is estimated, if the centuries-old traditional methods of biomass use are reconsidered and an efficient, rational use is implemented. The present pattern and share of biomass consumption of different traditional biomass energy devices are recorded. The efficiency of traditional technologies and that of improved ones--technologies which are practically applicable or already in use somewhere else--are compared and the potential of biomass savings is calculated. The total biomass saving potential in all seven countries together has been estimated at 322 million tons/year. (Author)
[en] Fluorescence quenching of 3,7-diamino-2, 8-dimethyl-5-phenylphenazinium chloride (safranine T (ST)) by halides and pseudo halides in binary solvent mixtures was investigated by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy. Several parameters, such as dielectric constant, viscosity coefficient, ET30 and fluorescence quantum yield have been investigated as a function of solvent compositions. In mixed solvents ST has been used as a probe for studying the microheterogenity of the mixture. The preferential solvations around ST in the excited state were determined. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants at different compositions of solvent mixtures were determined and the rational analysis of the results was attempted
[en] Gasification is considered to be a favourable method for converting a solid fuel into a more versatile gaseous fuel. Performance of a gasifier depends on the design of the gasifier, type of fuel used and air flow rate, etc. The applications of spouted bed for a variety of processes such as drying, coating, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion have been reported. Gasification of solid fuels in a spouted bed, which has certain potential advantages over other fluid bed configurations, appears to be an under-exploited technique so far. Central jet distributors are the most commonly used in the experimental studies that has been reported in the literature. Circular slit distributor is a new concept. This paper presents results of a comparative experimental study on air gasification of charcoal in central jet and circular slit inert sand spouted beds. The experiments were carried for an equivalence ratio of 0.25. The effect of spouting velocity and type of the distributor on the gasification performance were discussed. The steady state dense bed temperature varied between 979 and 1183 deg C for central jet spouted bed and between 964 and 1235 deg C for circular slit spouted bed. At higher spouting velocities, the gasification efficiency of the circular slit spouted bed was slightly more compared with that of central jet spouted bed
[en] The optical absorption spectra of 3.6 MeV 12C ions irradiated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) show the gradual increase in the optical absorption and the shift from the near UV to the visible region with increase in ion fluence. The increase in absorption may be attributed to the generation of a conjugated system of bonds, which are also corroborated by FTIR. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies reveal that the formation of linear network structure occurred at relatively lower ion fluence of 5x1013 ions/cm2.
[en] Promoting renewable energy in India has assumed great importance in recent years in view of high growth rate of energy consumption, high share of coal in domestic energy demand, heavy dependence on imports for meeting demands for petroleum fuels and volatility of world oil market. A number of renewable energy technologies (RETs) are now well established in the country. The technology that has achieved the most dramatic growth rate and success is wind energy; India ranks fourth in the world in terms of total installed capacity. India hosts the world's largest small gasifier programme and second largest biogas programme. After many years of slow growth, demand for solar water heaters appears to be gaining momentum. Small hydro has been growing in India at a slow but steady pace. Installation of some of the technologies appears to have slowed down in recent years; these include improved cooking stoves (ICSs) and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In spite of many successes, the overall growth of renewable energy in India has remained rather slow. A number of factors are likely to boost the future prospects of renewable energy in the country; these include global pressure and voluntary targets for greenhouse gas emission reduction, a possible future oil crisis, intensification of rural electrification program, and import of hydropower from neighbouring countries.