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[en] Highlights: • Level of interest towards EE varies greatly with countries’ renewable energy mix. • Energy efficiency is important even for renewable-rich countries. • Iceland, Norway and New Zealand are top-three renewable-rich OECD countries. • Policies need to be synchronized with technological advancements. - Abstract: The relevance of energy efficiency policy measures for renewable-rich countries could be different from those countries that have a limited share of renewables in their electricity generation mix, and are therefore likely to focus on low-carbon energy generation policies. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the energy efficiency initiatives of the three highest renewable-rich OECD countries, namely: Iceland, Norway and New Zealand. The paper then focuses on a comprehensive review of New Zealand's energy efficiency policies since a formal “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Act” came into force. This paper then highlights the future challenges for New Zealand and offers some policy recommendations, which may also be applicable for other renewable-rich countries.
[en] Formal waste management services are not accessible for the majority of primary healthcare clinics on the African continent, and affordable and practicable technology solutions are required in the developing country context. In response, a protocol was established for the first quantitative and qualitative evaluation of relatively low cost small-scale incinerators for use at rural primary healthcare clinics. The protocol comprised the first phase of four, which defined the comprehensive trials of three incineration units. The trials showed that all of the units could be used to render medical waste non-infectious, and to destroy syringes or render needles unsuitable for reuse. Emission loads from the incinerators are higher than large-scale commercial incinerators, but a panel of experts considered the incinerators to be more acceptable compared to the other waste treatment and disposal options available in under-serviced rural areas. However, the incinerators must be used within a safe waste management programme that provides the necessary resources in the form of collection containers, maintenance support, acceptable energy sources, and understandable operational instructions for the incinerators, whilst minimising the exposure risks to emissions through the correct placement of the units in relation to the clinic and the surrounding communities. On-going training and awareness building are essential in order to ensure that the incinerators are correctly used as a sustainable waste treatment option