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[en] This guide, written to assist those concerned with the decommissioning of redundant facilities, is applicable to nuclear, chemical and power plants. Legal aspects and risk management is covered in the pre-project stage. Preparation for and execution of renovation, modification or mothballing of various plants is also covered. Dismantling operations and the necessary follow-up conclude the book. (UK)
[en] Two types of neutralisation or blocking test using human anti-HBsub(s) are described for the confirmation of positive results obtained by immunoradiometric screening for HBsub(s)Ag. (Auth.)
[en] The authors have evaluated and compared some of the relevant operating characteristics of NaI and plastic scintillators for use in various safeguards monitoring applications. These include a sensitivity analysis of the two scintillators to various radiation fields and scintillator response as affected by environmental temperature. A comparison of experiment and modeling via the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code has been performed to validate the calculational techniques. This then enables complex detector situations to be simulated with increased confidence
[en] We describe Interplanetary Network (IPN) detection and localization information for 554 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed as triggered and untriggered events by BATSE. For any given burst observed by BATSE and one other distant spacecraft, arrival time analysis (or triangulation) results in an annulus of possible arrival directions whose half-width varies between 14 arcseconds and 5.6 degrees, depending on the intensity, time history, and arrival direction of the burst, as well as the distance between the spacecraft. This annulus generally intersects the BATSE error circle, resulting in a reduction of the area of up to a factor of ∼ 650. When three widely separated spacecraft observed a burst, the result is an error box whose area is as much as 30000 times smaller than that of the BATSE error circle
[en] Detonation waves that sweep along the surface of a metal plate induce reduced pressure and enhanced shear, relative to the same detonation at normal incidence. Detonation waves at intermediate obliquity impress intermediate combined stress states. Release waves from the free surfaces may enter into play and contribute to the damage. Initiation of explosive at discrete points produces strong pressure, density, and velocity gradients in the gaseous explosive products in areas where the waves collide, are impressed in an adjacent metal, causing similar stress gradients within the metal that often leading to intense damage. In this work, we investigate damage generated in AISI 4130 steel by the combined effects of oblique drive and interacting detonation waves. The experimental data consist of multipoint velocimetry points probing the free surface in regions loaded by interacting detonation waves and regions between the interactions. Metallography on recovered plate records the plastic flow and damage correlated with the velocimetry data. Spall is indicated in most regions, but not some, and the alpha-epsilon stress-induced phase transformation appears in most regions, but not all.
[en] Optical velocimetry is limited to measuring the component of the target velocity along the axis of the optical beam, thereby allowing a laterally moving tilted surface to approach a probe undetected. We are not discussing the detection of the lateral motion, but rather the detection of material approaching the probe due to lateral motion of a surface that is not perpendicular to the beam. This motion is not measured in optical velocimetry, and consequentially, integrating the velocity will in general give an incorrect position. We will present three approaches to overcome this limitation: Tilted wave-front interferometry, which maps time of flight into fringe displacement; pulse bursts for which we measure the change in the average arrival time of a burst, and amplitude modulation interferometry, in which a change in path length shows up as a change in the phase of the modulation. All three of these have the potential to be integrated with existing velocimetry probes for simultaneous velocity and displacement measurements. We will also report on initial tests of these approaches.
[en] Psychological aspects of post-lumbar puncture headache have hitherto received little attention. A hundred consecutive patients admitted for elective myelography were studied. Post-myelogram headache was assessed by an independent observer and found to be strongly associated with normality of the test (P<0.001). Psychological testing showed a trend between Hospital Anxiety Depression score and normality of myelogram as well as development of headache, although this did not achieve statistical significance. This study suggestet that there is a large psychological as well as organic component to post-myelogram headache. (orig.)
[en] The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s
[en] We have developed an automatic search procedure to identify low-energy spectral features in GRBs. We have searched 133,000 spectra from 117 bright bursts and have identified 12 candidate features with significances ranging from our threshold of P=5x10-5 to P=1x10-7. Several of the candidates have been examined in detail, including some with data from more than one BATSE spectroscopy detector. The evidence for spectral features appears good; however, the features have not conclusively been shown to be narrow lines
[en] The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), scheduled for launch in 2006, comprises a Large Area Telescope (LAT) and a GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM). The LAT is a pair telescope with unprecedented sensitivity in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV energy range. The GLAST Burst Monitor consists of an array of NaI and BGO scintillation detectors operating in the 10 keV to 25 MeV range and covering a wide field of view. The GBM will enhance LAT observations of GRBs by extending the spectral coverage into the range of current GRB databases, and will provide a trigger for repointing the spacecraft to observe delayed emission from bursts outside the LAT field of view