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[en] Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 °C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for the DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H2) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS™ chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4–0.5 Å/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 μΩ cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm3), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.
[en] A granular magnetic material, Co-Fe-Hf-O, has been developed-using dc pulsed magnetron reactive sputtering. The deposition rate is as high as 1.3 nm/s. The electrical and magnetic properties of Co-Fe-Hf-O film can be tuned by changing O2 during deposition. A highly resistive, magnetically soft film has been achieved in a small range of the O2/(Ar+O2) gas flow ratio. The origin of the dependence of magnetic and electrical properties of this material is studied and explained by monitoring the evolution of the film microstructure, using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy
[en] Integration of magnetic passive components into package has been attracting more interests recently, but efficient package-compatible magnetic materials are needed. We have developed a package-compatible granular material, CoFeHfO, on a printed circuit board by reactive sputtering and investigated the substrate dependence of its soft magnetic property. Atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray-scattering-diffraction spectra show that a rough substrate surface degrades the magnetic property of CoFeHfO thin films with almost the same crystal microstructure. With surface planarization by chemical-mechanical polishing, soft magnetic material CoFeHfO can be realized on the package substrate. This material is promising for future applications in package
[en] FeCo films and their lamination with ultrathin NiFe layers down to 5 A were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering techniques. Soft magnetic FeCo films were obtained at an optimal target power of 500 W and an optimal deposition pressure of 2 mTorr with high saturation flux density, Bsat>2.4 T, and low easy-axis coercivity, Hce≤15 Oe, and hard-axis coercivity, Hch≤3 Oe, at a film thickness of 2000 A. While the magnetostriction remains at ∼4x10-6 the stress was further optimized by applying substrate bias at a controlled level ≤50 V without sacrificing film magnetic softness