Results 1 - 9 of 9
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[en] A very rapid and simple synthesis of CuInSe2 nanocrystals (NCs) was successfully performed using a continuous hot-injection microreactor with a high throughput per reactor volume. It was found that copper-rich CuInSe2 with a sphalerite structure was formed initially followed by the formation of more ordered CuInSe2 at longer reaction times along with the formation of Cu2Se and In2Se3. Binary syntheses were performed and the results show a much faster formation rate of Cu2Se than In2Se3. The rate limiting step in the formation of CuInSe2 is forming the In2Se3 intermediate. Rapid synthesis of stoichiometric CuInSe2 NCs using a continuous-flow microreactor was accomplished by properly adjusting the Cu/In precursor ratio. Tuning the ratio of coordinating solvents can cause size differences from 2.6 to 4.1 nm, bandgaps from 1.1 to 1.3 eV, and different production yields of NCs. The highest production yield as determined by weight was achieved up to 660 mg/h using a microreactor with a small volume of 3.2 cm3.
[en] Hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNPs) were synthesized using a microreactor-assisted system with a hydrodynamic focusing micromixer. Due to the fast mixing of each precursor in the system, the poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thermodynamic-locked (TML) conformations were protected from their random aggregations by the immediately initiated growth of silica shells. When altering the mixing time through varying flow rates and flow rate ratios, the different degrees of the aggregation of PAA TML conformations were observed. The globular and necklace-like TML conformations were successfully captured by modifying the PAA concentration at the optimized mixing condition. Uniform HSNPs with an average diameter ∼30 nm were produced from this system. COMSOL numerical models was established to investigate the flow and concentration profiles, and their effects on the formation of PAA templates. Finally, the quality and utility of these uniform HSNPs were demonstrated by the fabrication of antireflective thin films on monocrystalline photovoltaic cells which showed a 3.8% increase in power conversion efficiency. (paper)
[en] Sintering of metal nanowire (NW) networks on transparent polymers is an emerging approach for fabricating transparent conductive electrodes used in multiple devices. Pulsed light sintering is a scalable sintering process in which large-area, broad-spectrum xenon lamp light causes rapid NW fusion to increase network conductivity, while embedding the NWs in the polymer to increase mechanical robustness. This paper develops a multiphysical approach for predicting evolution of conductivity, NW fusion and nanoscale temperature gradients on the substrate during pulsed light sintering of silver NWs on polycarbonate. Model predictions are successfully validated against experimentally measured temperature and electrical resistance evolution. New insight is obtained into the diameter-dependent kinetics of NW fusion and nanoscale temperature gradients on the substrate, which are difficult to obtain experimentally. These observations also lead to the understanding that NW embedding in intense pulsed light sintering (IPL) can occur below the glass transition temperature of the polymer, and to a new differential thermal expansion-based mechanism of NW embedding during IPL. These insights, and the developed model, create a framework for physics-guided choice of NWs, substrate and process parameters to control conductivity and prevent substrate damage during the process. (paper)
[en] Growth in the potential applications of nanomaterials has led to a focus on the development of new manufacturing approaches for these materials. In particular, an increased demand due to the unique properties of nanomaterials requires a substantial yield of high-performance materials and a simultaneous reduction in the environmental impact of these processes. In this paper, a high-rate production of phosphine-stabilized undecagold nanoclusters was achieved using a layer-up strategy which involves the use of microlamination architectures; the patterning and bonding of thin layers of material (laminae) to create a multilayered micromixer in the range of 25-250 μm thick was used to step up the production of phosphine-stabilized undecagold nanoclusters. The continuous production of highly monodispersed phosphine-stabilized undecagold nanoclusters at a rate of about 11.8 (mg s-1) was achieved using a microreactor with a size of 1.687 cm3. This result is about 500 times over conventional batch syntheses based on the production rate per reactor volume.
[en] The role of gold nanoparticles supported on ZnO in photocatalytic activity for dye degradation was investigated. To this end, gold nanoparticles supported on ZnO (Au–ZnO) were prepared using a simple co-precipitation method. The prepared nanocatalyst was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV–Vis absorption, and photoluminescence. The photocatalytic activity of Au–ZnO was examined by the degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution using a light source that has more than 95 % (i.e., energy) of emitted photons between 400 and 800 nm. Highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in air at room temperature was observed from these Au–ZnO nanocatalysts with gold particle size ranging from 2 to 7 nm, with an average size of 3.8 nm. The observed rate constant for MB degradation on Au–ZnO was 0.0118/min compared with 0.0007/min for pure ZnO. Furthermore, the charge transfer pathway for the degradation of methylene blue in Au–ZnO is suggested.
[en] In this letter, we present a nanophotonic device consisting of plasmonic nanopatch array (NPA) with integrated metal–organic framework (MOF) for enhanced infrared absorption gas sensing. By designing a gold NPA on a sapphire substrate, we are able to achieve enhanced optical field that spatially overlaps with the MOF layer, which can adsorb carbon dioxide (CO2) with high capacity. Experimental results show that this hybrid plasmonic–MOF device can effectively increase the infrared absorption path of on-chip gas sensors by more than 1100-fold. The demonstration of infrared absorption spectroscopy of CO2 using the hybrid plasmonic–MOF device proves a promising strategy for future on-chip gas sensing with ultra-compact size. (letter)
[en] A critical barrier to the routine use of nanomaterials is the tedious, expensive means of their synthesis. Microreaction technology takes advantage of the large surface area-to-volume ratios within microchannel structures to accelerate heat and mass transport. This accelerated transport allows for rapid changes in reaction temperatures and concentrations leading to more uniform heating and mixing which can have dramatic impacts on macromolecular yields and nanoparticle size distributions. Benefits of microreaction technology include higher yield and reactant conversion, better energy efficiency and less by-product generation. Microreactors can help minimize the environmental impact of nanoproduction by enabling solvent free mixing, integrated separation techniques and reagent recycling. The possibility of synthesizing nanomaterials in the required volumes at the point-of-use eliminates the need to store and transport potentially hazardous materials and provides the flexibility for tailoring complex functional nanomaterials. Recognizing these benefits for nanosynthesis, continuous flow microreactors have been used by several research groups to synthesize and characterize nanomaterials. An overview of these efforts and issues related to scale up and other post synthesis processes such as separation and deposition are presented in this paper.
[en] Highlights: •Highly oriented metal-organic framework thin film on thermal SiO2. •Formation pathway of metal organic framework thin films by layer-by-layer method. •Complete surface coverage of metal organic framework thin films at ~90 nm thickness. -- Abstract: Assembly of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin-films with well-ordered growth directions enables many practical applications and is likely part of the future of functional nanomaterials. Insights into the formation pathway of the MOF thin films would allow better control over the growth directions and possibly the amount of guest molecules absorbed into the MOF pores. Here, we investigate the nucleation and growth of oriented Cu3(BTC)2∙xH2O MOF (HKUST-1, BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) thin films on the thermal SiO2 surface using a room temperature stepwise layer-by-layer (LBL) method. Initial stages of LBL growth were characterized with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis in order to understand nucleation and growth kinetics. HKUST-1 thin films with preferred growth along the  direction on the thermal SiO2 surface were obtained in the absence of not only a gold substrate, but also organic-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). It is found that the formation of HKUST-1 is initiated by deposition of copper acetate on the thermal SiO2 surface followed by ligand exchange between coordinated acetate from the copper precursor and the BTC ligands. As the LBL growth cycle is increased, HKUST-1 crystals on the thermal SiO2 surfaces are continuously forming and growing and finally the crystallites coalesce into a continuous film. Highly oriented HKUST-1 thin films on thermal SiO2 surface with complete surface coverage and ~90 nm thickness were obtained at ~80 cycles of LBL growth under the conditions used in this study.
[en] Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition is demonstrated for the deposition of CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The continuous flow system consists of a microscale T-junction micromixer with the co-axial water circulation heat exchanger to control the reacting chemical flux and optimize the heterogeneous surface reaction. Dense, high quality nanocrystallite CdS thin films were deposited at an average rate of 25.2 nm/min, which is significantly higher than the reported growth rate from typical batch chemical bath deposition process. Focused-ion-beam was used for transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation to characterize the interfacial microstructure of CdS and FTO layers. The band gap was determined at 2.44 eV by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows the binding energies of Cd 3d3/2, Cd 3d5/2, S 2P3/2 and S 2P1/2 at 411.7 eV, 404.8 eV, 162.1 eV and 163.4 eV, respectively. - Highlights: ► CdS films deposited using continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) ► Dense nanocrystallite CdS films can be reached at a rate of 25.2 [nm/min]. ► MASD can approach higher film growth rate than conventional chemical bath deposition