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[en] Two locally produced vegetables and patol were treated and preserved at optimum salt and irradiation levels for upto 60 days. The salt concentration for preservation of carrot and patol were 2%(w/v) and 3%(w/v), respectively. Lactic acid bacteria predominated in treated vegetables. 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
[en] A simple and straightforward technique was developed to assess avoided system operating costs associated with non-utility generation (NUG). The technique was based on optimum loading configurations of the committed units both before and after the inclusion of NUG energy. The salient features of the technique were presented in this paper. Assessment of avoided operating cost with deterministic and probabilistic criteria were explained. A time differentiated price system was adopted in the algorithms to reflect the different value placed on purchased price by a utility at different times of the day. The algorithms show the utility effects of dispatchable and non-dispatchable NUG energies. The IEEE Reliability Test System (RTS) was utilized for numerical analysis. Results were illustrated. It was found that sensitivity studies similar to those performed on the IEEE-RTS could be utilized to determine the amount of energy and the time period during which utilities and NUGs can maximize their economic benefits. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
[en] The nonlinear propagation of the dust-acoustic bright and dark envelope solitons in an opposite polarity dusty plasma (OPDP) system (composed of non-extensive q-distributed electrons, iso-thermal ions, and positively as well as negatively charged warm dust) has been theoretically investigated. The reductive perturbation method (which is valid for a small, but finite amplitude limit) is employed to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Two types of modes, namely, fast and slow dust-acoustic (DA) modes, have been observed. The conditions for the modulational instability (MI) and its growth rate in the unstable regime of the DA waves are significantly modified by the effects of non-extensive electrons, dust mass, and temperatures of different plasma species, etc. The implications of the obtained results from our current investigation in space and laboratory OPDP medium are briefly discussed. (paper)
[en] Modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) has been theoretically investigated in a plasma system which is composed of inertial warm adiabatic ions, isothermal positrons, and two-temperature super-thermal electrons (cool and hot). A nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived by using reductive perturbation method that governs the MI of the IAWs. The numerical analysis of the solution of NLSE shows the existence of both stable (dark envelope solitons) and unstable (bright envelope solitons and rogue waves) regimes of IAWs. It is observed that the basic features (viz., stability of the wave profile and MI growth rate) of the IAWs are significantly modified by the superthermality of electrons and related plasma parameters. The results of our present investigation should be useful for understanding different nonlinear phenomena in both space (viz., Saturn’s magnetosphere and interplanetary medium) and laboratory plasmas (viz., hot-cathode discharge and high-intensity laser irradiation).
[en] Spices such as coriander, cumin, turmeric, chilli collected from local market were found to be highly contaminated with bacteria and fungi. A dose of 3 kGy without heat treatment reduced the microbial load from 6 log to 3 log and from 5 log to 2 log units depending on the storage temperature whereas the same dose of radiation combined with heat treatment reduced the microbial load from 6 log to 2 log units and from 4 log to below detectable level depending on storage condition. The combination treated spices retained good organoleptic quality in comparison to that of only irradiated species with higher dose. 11 refs., 2 tables (author)
[en] Effect of substrate rotation on anisotropy and domain structure for a thin ferromagnetic film has been investigated in this work. For this purpose Co films with 10 nm thickness have been prepared by sputtering with oblique angle of incidence for various substrate rotations. This method of preparation induces a uniaxial anisotropy due to shadow deposition effect. The magnetization reversal is studied by magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) based microscope in the longitudinal geometry. The Co films prepared by rotating the substrate with 10 and 20 rpm weakens the anisotropy but does not completely give isotropic films. But this leads to high dispersion in local grain anisotropy resulting in ripple and labyrinth domains. It is observed that the substrate rotation has moderate effect on uniaxial anisotropy but has significant effect on the magnetization reversal process and the domain structure
[en] The basic properties of nonlinear ion-acoustic (IA) waves (IAWs), particularly finite amplitude IA rogue waves (IARWs) in a plasma medium (containing pair ions, iso-thermal positrons, and non-thermal electrons) are theoretically investigated by deriving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The criteria for the modulational instability of IAWs, and the basic features of finite amplitude IARWs are identified. The modulationally stable and unstable regions are determined by the sign of the ratio of the dispersive coefficient to the nonlinear coefficient of NLSE. The latter is analyzed to obtain the region for the existence of the IARWs, which corresponds to the unstable region. The shape of the profile of the rogue waves depends on the non-thermal parameter α and the ratio of electron temperature to positron temperature. It is found that the increase in the value of the non-thermal parameter enhances both the amplitude and width of IARWs, and that the enhancement of electron (positron) temperature reduces (enhances) the amplitude and width of IARWs. It is worth to mention that our present investigation may be useful for understanding the salient features of IARWs in space (viz., upper region of Titan’s atmosphere, cometary comae, and Earth’s ionosphere, etc.) and laboratory (viz., plasma processing reactor and neutral beam sources, etc.) plasmas. (paper)
[en] A rigorous theoretical investigation is made to study the characteristics of dust-acoustic (DA) waves (DAWs) in an electron depleted unmagnetized opposite polarity dusty plasma system that contains super-thermal (κ-distributed) ions, mobile positively and negatively charged dust grains for the first time. The reductive perturbation method is employed to obtain the NLSE to explore the modulational instability (MI) conditions for DAWs as well as the formation and characteristics of gigantic rogue waves. The nonlinear and dispersion properties of the dusty plasma medium are the prime reasons behind the formation of rogue waves. The height and thickness of the DARWs associated with DAWs as well as the MI conditions of DAWs are numerically analyzed by changing different dusty plasma parameters, such as dust charges, dust and ion number densities, and ion-temperature, etc. The implications of the results for various space dusty plasma systems (viz., mesosphere, F-rings of Saturn, and cometary atmosphere, etc.) as well as laboratory dusty plasma produced by laser-matter interaction are briefly mentioned. Graphical abstract: .
[en] The magnetization reversal has been studied both along the easy- and hard- axes for an in plane magnetized thin Cobalt film using magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscope. We observe that magnetization reversal is governed by domain wall motion accompanied by nucleation when measured along the easy axis. However coherent rotation is observed during magnetization reversal when measured along the hard axis. The relaxation of magnetization in constant dc magnetic field measured along the easy axis shows exponential behaviour which according to Fatuzzo–Labrune model indicates domain nucleated dominant process. Domain wall velocity plotted as a function of constant dc magnetic field shows creep and slide regime from which the depinning transition was extracted. - Highlights: ► Kerr microscopy was performed for different field orientation to the easy axis. ► Here we have measured domain wall velocity in constant dc fields. ► Creep, depinning and slide modes of domain wall motion have been observed. ► Magnetic relaxation data can be very well fitted to Fatuzzo–Labrune model. ► Magnetization reversal occurs via domain nucleation and wall motion