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[en] PRPP Working Group Objectives: • Facilitate introduction of PRPP features into the design process at the earliest possible stage of concept development. → PRPP by design: • Assure that PRPP results are an aid to informing decisions by policy makers in areas involving safety, economics, sustainability, and related institutional and legal issues. “Generation IV nuclear energy systems will increase the assurance that they are a very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against acts of terrorism.”
[en] The Generation 4. International Forum (GIF) was initiated in 2000 and formally chartered in mid 2001. It was set-up as an international collective representing the governments of ten Countries (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Republic of South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States) strongly involved in the deployment and development of nuclear technology for energy production. The European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), represented by the European Commission, signed the GIF charter on July 30, 2003. The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation signed the GIF charter in November 2006. The Technology Goals for Generation 4. nuclear energy systems, developed during the Road map project, highlight Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PRPP) as one of the four goal areas for these technologies, along with Sustainability, Safety and Reliability, and Economics. On the basis of these four goal areas an evaluation methodology was developed which contributed to identify the six nuclear energy systems (NES) options currently under consideration by GIF. The Generation 4. Road map recommended the development of a comprehensive evaluation methodology to assess PRPP of Generation 4. nuclear energy systems. Accordingly the PRPP Expert Group was formed and tasked by the GIF in December 2002 to develop an improved evaluation methodology on the basis of the Road map's recommendation. The group includes members of the GIF and representatives from the IAEA. The methodology is organised as a progressive approach applying alternative methods at different levels of thoroughness as more design information becomes available and research improves the depth of technical knowledge. To date, the overall framework of the methodology is considered rather accepted and stable; the methodology was advanced with a development case study and has been tested though a demonstration case study. This paper provides an updated overview of the methodology approach developed by the PRPP Expert Group. The paper also highlights some of the achievements and the lessons learned during the demonstration case study carried out in 2005-2006, in which different techniques have been applied for the implementation of the PRPP evaluation framework. Finally the paper presents some of the ongoing activities and future directions for the activity of the group.
[en] Acquisition and analysis of open source information plays an increasingly important role in the IAEA’s move towards safeguards implementation based on all safeguards relevant information known about a State. The growing volume of open source information requires the development of technology and tools capable of effectively collecting relevant information, filtering out “noise”, organizing valuable information in a clear and accessible manner, and assessing its relevance. In this context, the IAEA’s Division of Information Management (SGIM) and the EC’s Joint Research Centre (JRC) are currently implementing a joint project to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of the IAEA’s workflow for open source information collection and analysis. The objective is to provide tools to support SGIM in the production of the SGIM Open Source Highlights, which is a daily news brief consisting of the most pertinent news stories relevant to safeguards and non-proliferation. The process involves the review and selection of hundreds of articles from a wide array of specifically selected sources. The joint activity exploits the JRC’s Europe Media Monitor (EMM) and NewsDesk applications: EMM automatically collects and analyses news articles from a pre-defined list of web sites, and NewsDesk allows an analyst to manually select the most relevant articles from the EMM stream for further processing. The paper discusses the IAEA’s workflow for the production of SGIM Open Source Highlights and describes the capabilities of EMM and NewsDesk. It then provides an overview of the joint activities since the project started in 2011, which were focused i) on setting up a separate EMM installation dedicated to the nuclear safeguards and security domain (Nuclear Security Media Monitor, NSMM) and ii) on evaluating the NSMM/NewsDesk for meeting the IAEA’s needs. Finally, it presents the current use NSMM/NewsDesk at the IAEA and proposes options for further integration with the IAEA workflow.