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[en] After having outlined the emergency of the adaptation to climate disruptions, and formulated a set of proposals, the first part of this report proposes an overview of issues related to climate change by addressing the manifestations of climate disruption (already visible signs, the main steps to come in the near future, a probably very degraded situation after 2050), and the effects of climate change on health, on the frequency, intensity and costs of natural risks, on water resources, and on economic activity. The second part addresses how to face climate disruptions by 2050 by outlining the need of a change of scale and of ambitions (overview of the present too weak mobilisation), of a strong political sign on the priority character of adaptation policies, of a clarification of the roles of the different actors (national level, regional level, local level), and of addressing the complex issue of financing. The third part focusses on some adaptation sensitive works: the support of particularly exposed territories (overseas territories, coastal territories, mountain as fragile territories), the adaptation of the building environment and town planning (building and planning in flood-risk areas, and to face severe heat waves), the implementation of water policies adapted to climate change, and the support to the transformation of the agriculture sector. Various hearings are reported.
[en] In order to strengthen the action of non-state actors and give credibility to climate stabilisation scenarios, the Climate Chance Association launched in 2018 a Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, which aims to explain the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions, by crossing national public policies, with sectoral dynamics, strategies of private actors, local public policies, and all the actions undertaken by non-state actors at the local level. In this book, we synthesize the elements of evaluation and assessment from members of the main local and subnational networks engaged in fighting climate change (Section I), we propose 13 new case studies of cities and regions analyzing the alignment of their local public policies (Section II), and finally we offer an illustrative and interactive global overview of local public policies led in 2019 through 80 short illustrations (Section III).
[en] In order to strengthen the action of non-state actors and give credibility to climate stabilisation scenarios, the Climate Chance Association launched in 2018 a Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, which aims to explain the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions, by crossing national public policies, sectoral dynamics, the implementation of the commitments and the non-state actors' best practices at the local level. First-of-its-kind, published in French and English, this report will provide decision-makers, journalists, researchers, students and newcomers with a detailed framework for understanding major program areas and a first level of information and action analysis, particularly at the local level, in order to achieve the Paris Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals. In Book 2 on 'The Mobilisation of local and subnational governments', Section 1 we have synthesised the elements of evaluation and assessment of the main local and subnational networks engaged in fighting climate change. This synthesis, based on their annual communications, their online portal, and our mutual exchanges, allows us to understand the recent trends of the implemented projects and the state of reporting on climate action of local authorities across the world. Section 2 illustrates this first synthesis using 23 study cases of cities and regions which have succeeded in implementing public policies. This series of case studies has been chosen based on the recent activity of local and subnational governments, including the publication of local climate action plans, generally related to the initiatives described in the first section. For each of these cases, thematic axes are put forward. Finally, Section 3 offers a global overview of local public policies recently implemented through 80 short illustrations from a constant news watch, and for many, from the contributions of the project holders themselves made within The Cartography of Action.
[en] Since the 1990's, local authorities have gradually managed to become players that cannot be overlooked in the fight against climate change. This can mainly be set down to their greater 'ability to do' which is, in turn, related to a decentralization trend in several regions of the world. It also has to do with their growing political influence through international networks, which have arisen in a situation where multilateralism has been repeatedly blocked
[en] After having recalled the context of creation of the inquiry commission, and given an overview of the performed work (hearings, visits, actions), this document outlines that electricity bills paid by French people are among the most expensive despite a low KWh cost. It discusses how to assess the cost and competitiveness of the electricity produced by the nuclear sector while outlining the several uncertainties on this issue. It comments the development of renewable energies, outlines the need for an increased energy production to face the demand increase, discusses the increase of nuclear costs, outlines the differences between the different renewable energies, outlines the increase of grid costs, and comments the evolution of the household annual electricity bill. It stresses the importance of a new impulse for energy savings, and of the search for a new equilibrium between 'producing more' and 'consuming less'. It outlines the challenges of energy storage, and the different issues to be debated as far as nuclear energy is concerned. It presents three scenarios: phasing out nuclear with a strong program of energy savings and a development of renewable energies, an intermediate scenario with a replacement of second generation reactors by a small number of EPRs while developing renewable energies, and a scenario based on new generation nuclear technologies (EPR, and even fourth-generation technologies). It highlights the different issues and problems related to the actual electricity cost, and to the financing of grid improvement
[en] Presented as a guide, this book proposes an operational and transverse approach to local action in the field of energy. It is illustrated by many field examples which show how actors have been able to (re)gain control of the energy issue. In the first part in which they present the main issues, the authors outline that local authorities are in front line for a European energy transition, recall the French legal framework for local energy transition, describe how to address local energy self-sufficiency, and comment stakes and levers for energy transition financing. The second part deals with action. The authors there describe how to manage a local energy transition, how to act transversally, how to get citizen involved, and how to relate energy transition and local development
[en] This report is an analysis and assessment of climate action led by banks, insurers and investors. It also presents the market dynamics with the evolution and offer of green financial products. The 2020 edition reflects the growing awareness among financial players of their major role in the low-carbon transition of the real economy, but also of the factors underlying its success: the protection of biodiversity and the social impact of investments and financial products. Many tools and methodologies are now in place or under construction for greening the financial sector. That this broad-based movement is not reflected in sufficient volumes of financing is notably because it is impossible to move quickly from financing the existing economy, especially in the midst of a crisis such as the world is currently experiencing, to financing exclusively assets and activities adapted to a carbon-neutral world. To date, the spotlight has been trained on assets at risk from transition, which initial investigations carried out in 2018 by a few European financial authorities have estimated at some 10% of banks' balance sheets. Emphasis has also been placed on green assets, which appear to constitute at best 20% of portfolios among even the most involved players. According to an EIOPA estimate, 1 they make up around 5% on average of European insurers' portfolios. However, not all assets between these two poles are neutral, and it is important that they too evolve. To this end, the concept of transition finance has recently emerged. This term was coined to describe financing for companies that are progressively reducing their carbon emissions. Criteria for debt instruments are currently being explored. The European taxonomy project also includes a category for businesses in transition. However, criteria capable of completely eliminating the risk of green washing have yet to be defined. To this end, release of the 'Framework for Financing a Whole-of-Economy Transition', promised for November by Mark Carney, now climate advisor to the UK Presidency of COP26, is a step awaited with great anticipation. The concept of Just Transition, born several years ago, is finding its first operational response in impact debt tools such as sustainable bonds and loans along with their various permutations. The European taxonomy attempts to take this into account as well, with the introduction of minimum social criteria for an activity to be considered sustainable. The challenge today is to generalise this notion within the financial sector to ensure that the low-carbon transition can be socially acceptable. This process also reflects a desire on the part of those providing financing to achieve greater impact by linking social and environmental issues, as proposed in the structure of the Sustainable Development Goals. Deploying strategies in line with the Paris Agreement and achieving net-zero emissions by 2050: For the past two years, this ambition has gained ground as the search for a suitable methodology continues. First made by public development banks, this commitment is being extended to the private financial sector. It is also taking root among companies, whether spontaneously or under pressure from investors, who are making it an increasingly explicit requirement. The publication of undisputed sector scenarios and national transition strategies worldwide would greatly facilitate these alignment strategies. Despite efforts to increase transparency on climate-related risks and opportunities, the financial community considers that companies still fail to provide them with the practical information needed to make informed financial decisions. Likewise, the climate, environmental and broader sustainability performance of financial products and services that claim such ambitions remains difficult to assess and compare. Any resolution of these issues will entail a generalisation and standardisation of mandatory disclosures, which is something regulators can impose. Europe is well on the way to achieving this already. The creation of open-access, verified databases would facilitate access to this information. Meanwhile, artificial intelligence tools are beginning to emerge to analyse this data and provide guidance for decision-making. Lastly, a further issue arises from the coronavirus pandemic and the massive public funding deployed to revive the world's economies. This situation calls for environmental and social considerations to be taken into account in choosing priorities for funding and measuring their impact. While emergency measures to date appear more conservative than transformative, it is important that the recovery plans currently being designed and deployed not be a missed opportunity for building a more sustainable, low-carbon economy.
[en] The industry is a very heterogeneous sector comprising many sub-sectors such as plastics, metallurgy, textiles and leather, agri-food, electronics, electrical equipment and machinery, wood and paper, chemistry and pharmacy, etc. Despite their diversity, these activities have in common the transformation of raw materials and energy - whose carbon footprint is relatively easy to evaluate - into much more complex finished or semi-finished products. They therefore have an important role to play, both in limiting their own emissions and in helping to de-carbonise world consumption
[en] The goal set by the Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, promoted by the Climate Chance Association, is to examine the impact of the actions taken by thousands of companies, communities and NGOs, sector by sector. We worked with a 'meta-report' approach, synthesising the studies conducted by various structures. Our first instinct was that, while many analyses exist, synthesis work isn't carried out as much, as the diversity and reliability of sources and data are disparate. In fact, as we imagined, this matter is considerable, and synthesising it is a complicated exercise. We therefore humbly present this first report, and we welcome all remarks and criticisms about data not used enough, analyses used too much or not highlighted enough. We just insist on the fact that all the data and analyses that have been taken back have been done by observatories, researchers, various actors, upstream of our own synthesis. This 'meta-report' therefore does not come up with anything and only seeks to offer, from this data and work, an easy to understand report of the evolution of recent CO2 emissions in the sectors and countries studied. In this book, we have chosen to work on documents by key sectors responsible for emissions, starting with the different areas of emissions on which the State reports to the UNFCCC are based. In the year 2017, which is characterised by the growth of global emissions, unfortunately no sector escapes this increase. However, there are weak signals (industrial processes, agreements between actors and so on) which show that these developments are not inevitable and that answers do exist. In this sense, our choice to complete global sector analyses in three key sectors (the power generation, mobility and land use sectors - LULUCF) through country studies has allowed us to fine-tune our approaches across the frameworks set by the actors' national and dynamic public policies. The successes achieved in some of these countries, with real reductions in emissions, clearly show that the effectiveness of non-state actions is also correlated with the efficiency of national or local public policy frameworks. We must also stress that the lack of data, especially in developing countries, is one of the weaknesses of climate action, as it cannot be credited if it is not quantified. In the areas of waste or agriculture, it is very difficult to measure the development of the action, and we need to go by secondary indicators, which makes the evaluation less robust
[en] Since 2015, the Climate Chance Association is participating in the mobilization against climate change. It is the only international organisation that aims to bring together all the non-state actors recognized by the UN (the 9 groups of actors: local authorities, companies, NGOs, trade unions, scientific community, agricultural, youth, indigenous peoples and women organisations), to develop common priorities and proposals and to strengthen stakeholders dynamics through networking (thematic coalitions, summits, action portal). In order to strengthen the action of non-state actors and give credibility to climate stabilisation scenarios, the Climate Chance Association launched in 2018 a Global Observatory of Non-State Climate Action, which aims to explain the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions, by crossing national public policies, with sectoral dynamics, strategies of private actors, local public policies, and all the actions undertaken by non-state actors at the local level. In this book, we propose a synthesis of the recent literature and the ongoing trends of actions, to explain the evolution of GHG emissions in the following sectors: energy production, transports, buildings, industry, waste, and land uses