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[en] European energy must reinvent itself. Its intellectual foundations are over a quarter of a century old. The primacy of the market, the 'end of history' geopolitics, the convergence of energy mixes due to the influence of competition and the existence of uniform rules: these three pillars, the legacy of a 1990s perspective, are increasingly at odds with the challenges we face today. Climate issues, and the highly capital-intensive nature of investments associated with them, together with a resurgence of the delicate issue of coordination between production and electricity networks mark the return of major market failures. The state of geopolitics, which is much more turbulent than expected, has put issues of industrial and technological sovereignty back on the agenda. Finally, the enduring contrasts in the energy mixes of the member states call for a new subsidiarity in European energy policy. After a review of the conceptual origins of Europe's energy policy, the article examines the growing gap between its initial objectives and more recent developments. It concludes by proposing some solutions for rebuilding a European policy adapted to the energy challenges we face
[fr]L'Europe de l'energie doit se reinventer. Ses bases intellectuelles ont plus d'un quart de siecle. Primat du marche, geopolitique de la 'fin de l'histoire', convergence des mix energetiques sous l'action de la concurrence et de regles uniformes: ces trois piliers herites d'une vision des annees 1990 apparaissent chaque jour davantage en porte-a-faux avec les enjeux d'aujourd'hui. L'exigence climatique, le caractere fortement capitalistique des investissements qui lui sont lies comme le retour des delicats problemes de coordination entre production et reseaux electriques marquent le retour d'importants echecs du marche. La geopolitique bien plus mouvementee qu'escompte remet a l'ordre du jour les enjeux industriels et de souverainete technologique. Enfin, les contrastes durables dans les mix energetiques des pays membres invitent a une nouvelle subsidiarite dans la politique energetique europeenne. Apres un retour sur les origines conceptuelles de l'Europe de l'energie, cet article examine le decalage croissant entre les objectifs initiaux et les evolutions recentes et propose quelques solutions pour rebatir une politique europeenne adaptee aux enjeux energetiques devant nous
[en] The authors propose a perspective on the history of electricity in Europe which notably illustrates both similarities and differences between models and policies in European countries. In a first part, they address the early years of electricity development, between 1880 and 1920, which drove the whole European society and economy. They analyse this success as based on three main issues: a common vision of the role of electricity in the society (a symbol of progress and modernity), a collective work on the technical and economic reality (a community of scientists and engineers working on technological breakthroughs), and propositions regarding institutions and the activity organisation (a common industrial model elaborated by contractors-managers of the electricity sector and proposed to governments). In a second part, the authors address the following period (1920-1980) which is characterized by a diversity of models for the electricity sectors and systems. They highlight the background of these differences, propose a focus on the three main European countries (France, Germany, Great-Britain), and discuss the relationship between this diversity of organisation modes and imageries. The next part addresses the Europe of electricity since the 1980's. The authors outline its technical characteristic, the adoption of a top-down approach since the 1990's, and the lack of consistency in these evolutions, and draw some lessons from the building up of a Europe of electricity since the 1990's. The authors finally question and comment how to build up the Europe of energy again
[en] This first monograph of the Ifri program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy is devoted to the control of carbon dioxide emissions within the European Union. Since it is almost unanimously accepted that Greenhouse Gas emissions constitute the main cause of the observed increase of the world average temperature, the system implemented by the European Union to limit and decrease the CO2 emissions is a significant pillar of the EU energy policy, the two others being the acceptance by the Member States of long-term commitments (for instance on the future share of renewable energy sources in their energy balance sheet) and the establishment of an internal market for electricity and gas. Though simple in principle, the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is in fact rather complex, and only experts really understand its merits and its deficiencies. These deficiencies are real and will have to be corrected in the future for the system to be effective. At this moment, when the 2005-2007 trial phase of the EU ETS is ending, the monograph has the purpose to stimulate the discussion between experts and to enable all those interested in the topic to understand the issues and to take part in the public debates on the subject. The monograph contains five papers: - 'An Overview of the CO2 Emission Control System in the European Union' by Jacques Lesourne and Maite Jaureguy-Naudin. - 'Description and Assessment of EU CO2 Regulations' by Yves Smeers. - 'Assessment of EU CO2 Regulations' by Jean-Paul Bouttes, Jean-Michel Trochet and Francois Dassa. - 'Investment in Low Carbon Technologies, Policies for the Power Sector' by Karsten Neuhoff. - 'Lessons Learned from the 2005-2007 Trial Phase of the EU Emission Trading System' by Jan Horst Keppler
[en] This note examines the major challenges faced by the energy sector in France in a context of continuous cost increase, of lack of domestic production, of high public expenses for the development of renewable energies, of low energy performance, of financial and regulatory framework which does not favour investments. It also highlights the central role of Europe to face these challenges although the European energy policy still lacks ambition, and is still dominated by the climate issue. It formulates a set of propositions about three main axes: a better management of energy consumption, a promotion of new emerging competitive industrial sectors without weakening the sectors of excellence France possesses in the field of energy, and to make the Europe of energy progress
[en] As the global electricity systems are shaped by decentralisation, digitalisation and decarbonization, the World Energy Council's Innovation Insights Briefs explore the new frontiers in energy transitions and the challenges of keeping pace with fast moving developments. We use leadership interviews to map the state of play and case studies across the whole energy landscape and build a broader and deeper picture of new developments within and beyond the new energy technology value chain and business ecosystem. The topic of this briefing is energy storage. We interviewed energy leaders from 17 countries, exploring recent progress in terms of technology, business models and enabling policies. We showcase these in 10 case studies. While the brief addresses energy storage as a whole, most insights are focused on electrical storage. Our research highlighted that today's mainstream storage technologies are unlikely to be sufficient to meet future flexibility requirements resulting from further decentralisation and decarbonization efforts. Furthermore, a restricted focus on lithium-ion batteries is putting the development of more cost-effective alternative technologies at risk. A detailed list of the interviews with innovators, energy users and producers can be found at the end of this brief. Annex 4 provides a list of acronyms and abreviations. With major decarbonizing efforts to remove thermal electric power generation and scale up renewable energies, the widespread adoption of energy storage continues to be described as the key game changer for electricity systems. Affordable storage systems are a critical missing link between intermittent renewable power and 24/7 reliability net-zero carbon scenario. Beyond solving this salient challenge, energy storage is being increasingly considered to meet other needs such as relieving congestion or smoothing out the variations in power that occur independently of renewable-energy generation. However, whilst there is plenty of visionary thinking, recent progress has focused on short-duration and battery-based energy storage for efficiency gains and ancillary services; there is limited progress in developing daily, weekly and even seasonal cost-effective solutions which are indispensable for a global reliance on intermittent renewable energy sources. The synthesis of thought leadership interviews and case studies with 37 companies and organizations from 17 countries helped derive the following key takeaways and also provide the impetus to the solution steps that we discuss in detail later in this brief: 1 - Shared road-maps: Energy storage is a well-researched flexibility solution. However, while the benefits of energy storage are clear to the energy community, there has been limited bridge-building with policy-makers and regulators to explore the behavioural and policy changes necessary to encourage implementation. 2 - Market design - Access and stacking: Market access and the ability to stack different services simultaneously will enable cost-effective deployment of energy storage, regardless of the technology. 3 - More than batteries: Energy storage is too often reduced to battery technologies. Future-proofing our energy systems means considering alternative solutions and ensuring technologies have equal market opportunities. Demonstration projects of such technologies are necessary to disprove bias towards specific technologies. 4 - Sector coupling: Energy storage presents a sector coupling opportunity between hard-to-abate sectors, such as mobility and industry and clean electricity. Different vectors of energy can be used, including heat, electricity and hydrogen. 5 - Investment: Relying on investments by adjacent sectors such as the automotive sector is not enough. The energy sector must adopt more aggressively technologies aligned with the end-goal: affordable clean energy for all.
[fr]L'adoption a grande echelle du stockage de l'energie est consideree comme un changement de paradigme majeur pour le systeme energetique. Le developpement d'une technologie de stockage accessible aux consommateurs constitue le chainon manquant pour rendre fiables les energies renouvelables variables. En depit de ce defi technique, le stockage de l'energie peut remplir un role au-dela des energies renouvelables, notamment dans le controle des congestions et les variations de puissance du reseau. Malgre ces perspectives encourageantes, les progres autour du stockage sont restes centres sur les services secondaires et les gains d'efficacite acquis par le stockage a court terme. En revanche, tres peu de progres a ete fait vers les solutions diurnes, hebdomadaires ou saisonnieres rentables, qui sont necessaires a la fiabilite des sources d'energies renouvelables. Conclusions principales: 1 - Feuille de route partagee: le stockage d'energie est une solution de flexibilite reconnue. Cependant, il existe tres peu de visions communes entre legislateurs et experts, bien que tous reconnaissent le potentiel du stockage. 2 - Structure du marche: obtenir un deploiement rentable du stockage se fera grace a un acces equitable au marche et un cumul de differents services, quelle que soit la technologie utilisee. 3 - Au-dela des batteries: le stockage energetique est trop souvent reduit aux batteries. Un systeme energetique a l'epreuve du temps doit s'appuyer sur des solutions diverses, encouragees par un acces equitable aux opportunites sur le marche. 4 - Couplage sectoriel: le stockage energetique represente une veritable opportunite de couplage entre les secteurs difficiles a decarboner et les energies renouvelables. Differents vecteurs d'energie peuvent etre utilises, y compris la chaleur, l'electricite et l'hydrogene. 5 - Investissements: il faut diversifier les investissements au-dela des secteurs adjacents, tel que le secteur automobile. Le secteur energetique doit adopter de maniere plus agressive les technologies alignees avec leur finalite: de l'energie propre pour tous.
[en] Environmental goods represent a trade market of approximately US$1 trn annually. Reducing barriers to trade and investment would tangibly support cost effectiveness and efficient decarbonization of the energy sector, leading to more sustainable and accessible energy systems. Understanding and tackling non-tariff measures (NTMs) that impact on the low-carbon energy sector should be a priority in a country's efforts to successfully address its energy trilemma - the links between energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability. These three dimensions can contribute to the prosperity and competitiveness of individual countries. As a trade barrier, NTMs frequently relate to customs procedures and import requirements, technical standards and other regulations that impede the flow of goods and services. These are estimated to have twice the impact on trade than tariff barriers, although they are generally less understood and more difficult to address and remove. With energy mostly neglected in conventional trade policy in the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as in bilateral free trade agreements, this report aims to support policy-makers in building an NTM-related agenda. The World Energy Council urges countries and the WTO to assess whether initiatives to phase out NTMs on products covered in the current multi-lateral environmental goods tariff negotiations would be beneficial. While barriers to trade and investment in energy goods and services are starting to be addressed, the process of integrating the energy dimension to trade policy is still in its infancy. As the world's largest economies start to use private capital to finance low-carbon technologies, the elimination of tariffs and NTMs can be an equally powerful economic force.
[fr]Les biens environnementaux representent un marche commercial d'approximativement 1 000 milliards de dollars par an.1 La reduction des barrieres au commerce et a l'investissement contribuerait de facon manifeste a une decarbonisation efficace et efficiente du secteur de l'energie, conduisant a des systemes energetiques plus durables et accessibles. Comprendre et s'attaquer aux mesures non tarifaires (MNT) qui affectent le secteur energetique bas carbone devraient etre un des efforts prioritaires des pays pour reussir a equilibrer le trilemme energetique (securite energetique, equite energetique et environnement durable). Ces trois dimensions peuvent contribuer a la prosperite et a la competitivite de chaque pays. En tant que barrieres commerciales, les MNT se rapportent aux procedures douanieres et aux besoins d'importation, aux normes techniques et autres reglementations qui entravent les echanges de biens et services. On estime que les MNT ont deux fois plus d'impact sur le commerce que les barrieres tarifaires2 bien qu'elles soient generalement moins bien comprises et plus difficiles a resoudre et a supprimer. L'energie est souvent negligee dans la politique commerciale conventionnelle de l'Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC) et dans les accords bilateraux de libre-echange; ce rapport a donc pour objectif d'aider les decideurs politiques a elaborer un programme concernant les MNT. Le Conseil Mondial de l'energie exhorte les pays et l'OMC a evaluer les benefices d'initiatives visant a supprimer les MNT sur les produits relevant des actuelles negociations tarifaires plurilaterales sur les biens environnementaux. Alors que l'on commence a s'interesser aux obstacles au commerce et a l'investissement concernant les biens et services energetiques, le processus d'integration de la dimension energetique dans les politiques commerciales n'en est encore qu'a ses balbutiements. Les plus grandes economies mondiales se lancent dans l'utilisation de capital prive pour financer les technologies bas carbone: la suppression des droits de douane et des MNT peut etre un moteur economique tout aussi performant.
[en] This note focuses of the major challenges for the French energy sector within a context of continuous cost increase, and outlines the central role of Europe to face the energy challenges. The authors state proposals under three main themes: a better management of energy consumption, a support to the emergence of new competitive industrial sectors without weakening the existing ones, and make the Europe of energy progress. The authors address the challenge of energy cost increase (a traditionally efficient French energy mix but with costs to increase in the future, a weak energy performance, a financial and regulatory framework not favourable to investments and innovation), discuss the European energy policy which, according to them, lacks ambition (a policy unbalanced by the prevalence of the climate issue, a national independence in contradiction with increasing interdependencies) and then make their proposals
[en] The fight against global warming requires us to limit quantities of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere, carbon gas in particular. In order to honour its commitments in this regard, France must significantly step up its efforts. It is well behind schedule as regards the trajectory it needs to follow if it is to achieve the goal of climate neutrality, or net zero GHG emissions ('Net-Zero'), inscribed in the 2015 Paris Agreement and the 2017 Climate Plan. In order to de-carbonize, investments must be made to reduce emissions. The choice of what investments to carry out must be made according to a cost per metric ton of emissions avoided. This is what the State is doing for its own investments, making it a rule to take account of a value of the metric ton of CO2 (or equivalent) avoided in the socioeconomic analyses it carries out. This is the 'shadow price' of carbon. The rule should be extended to all activities generating greenhouse gas emissions, in order to be able to provide a 'value for climate action' applicable to them. The Prime Minister requested Alain Quinet - who had already been responsible for an initial report on the subject in 2008 - to form a commission tasked with revising the shadow price, with support from France Strategie's teams and taking account of the many developments that have taken place over the last ten years. Alain Quinet's report provides a comprehensive overview of analyses enabling definition of a trajectory of values to be taken into account if we are to achieve the goal of net zero GHG emissions by 2050, given the current and foreseeable state of techniques available for reduction of emissions and carbon capture. The evolution of goals and techniques, together with the fact that we have fallen behind as regards the desirable emissions trajectory, requires significant upward revision of the target shadow price, which should be to the tune of Euros 250 per metric ton of CO2 in 2030, whereas the target set for the same year in 2008 was Euros 100. The report requests the public authorities to adopt policies enabling this value to be taken into account as widely as possible. The 'Value for Climate Action' Commission recommends that tools be employed that go beyond simple price signals, combining all instruments - including regulations and measures facilitating access to credit and fostering green investments - that might have equivalent effects. This pragmatic approach is necessary to enable effective implementation that takes account of all the economic and social consequences of these essential developments, and provides appropriate responses to them
[en] The World Energy Council's definition of energy sustainability is based on three core dimensions: energy security, energy equity, and environmental sustainability. The Energy Trilemma Index ranks countries' energy performance around the world and provides a framework to benchmark progress. The 2016 Energy Trilemma Index reveals signs of progress on all dimensions of the energy trilemma. Thirteen of the 125 countries assessed achieve a triple-A score. Efforts to increase resource productivity and manage energy demand growth will be key in ensuring a balanced energy trilemma. Among the countries included in the Index, access to electricity and clean cooking have both increased by 5% to 85% and 74% since 2000. Meanwhile, cleaner forms of energy are being used to support energy access and economic growth, with renewables making up 9.7% of total primary energy consumption in 2015. A more diversified and low-carbon energy mix will help to improve energy security and environmental sustainability but its positive effects may be stifled by rising energy consumption, which is predicted to increase by up to 46% by 2060. This year Denmark, Switzerland and Sweden top the Index, with Denmark also achieving the highest score for energy security. While not in the top 10 overall, Luxembourg maintains its position for most equitable (affordable and accessible) and the Philippines is leading the way on the environmental sustainability dimension. In Latin America, Uruguay ranks the highest, while in the Middle East, Israel outperforms its regional peers. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Mauritius performs best, and in Asia, New Zealand remains at the top of the regional leader board
[en] The scenarios provides an inclusive and strategic framework that enables big-picture thinking. They are designed to be used as a set to explore and navigate what might happen and support a better-quality global strategic dialogue on the future of energy systems. These regionally focused scenarios are is produced using a World Energy Council framework, that was developed by the Council and its scenarios partners, Accenture Strategy Energy and the Paul Scherrer Institute. The report is following a medium-term time horizon of 2040 and focuses on European region, which includes EU31, Eastern Europe and Russia. It explores three plausible pathways for a region in Modern Jazz, Unfinished Symphony and Hard Rock futures, provides comparative analysis, and a broader view on 'how to use' the scenarios. The regionally focused scenarios were informed by insights from 15 deep-dive regionally focused leadership interviews, regional workshops in Paris, Berlin and Tallinn, and wide experts' engagements. The European region comprises over 30 national energy systems, including some of the world's largest importer-exporter nations. There is increasing diversity in the overall energy mix, which includes community/ district and industrial heating; centralised and decentralised electricity grids; hydrocarbon molecules; and renewable, hydro and nuclear power generation. Compared with other regions, the European region is also well endowed with both new and ageing national and cross-border energy infrastructures. Whilst the future of energy cannot be predicted with any degree of precision, managing successful energy transitions necessitates a bigger-picture perspective. The exploratory scenarios contained in this report describe three plausible alternative pathways for European regional energy systems. None of the scenarios is the preferred or most likely future. Instead, the set of scenarios can be used by energy leaders to engage constructively with uncertainty and to better prepare for emerging systemic risks and new opportunities. The three scenarios indicate the following as the main challenges facing European energy transition leaders: 1 - European energy systems are already approaching an investment cliff. 2 - New global growth opportunities are emerging in energy, whilst geostrategic competitions are intensifying. 3 - Digital energy competitiveness is key to a next era of regional prosperity. 4 - European shared values imply that there can be no energy transition without social involvement and public acceptance. 5 - New economics of whole system transition are needed that avoid increasing emotional reactions and establish a level playing field in the consideration of alternative net-zero carbon technologies transition pathways. 6 - Developing integrated energy-industrial strategies and promoting sector-coupling policies are pivotal in enabling affordable and deeper decarbonization, in parallel with creating jobs and strengthening regional economic competitiveness. 7 - There is a need to build new capabilities in dynamic resilience and cross-scale governance in order to secure the benefits of global and local flows of clean, reliable and affordable energy for everyone, anytime, anywhere. The main section of the full report presents the three regional storylines to 2040, with supporting comparative analysis of energy sector implications; additional country focused insight; and illustrative, model-based quantification. There is also a section on 'how to use' the scenarios, describing how business leaders and policy makers can effectively use these scenarios to: (1) engage in leadership dialogues; (2) enable integrating policy pathfinding; (3) stress test and translate new energy visions into action; (4) redesign energy businesses