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[en] Dedicated to ecological transition in territorial communities, this report addresses projects undertaken in Brest in the fields of energy and of the environment which can be contributions to national objectives of energy transition. It reviews actions which can inspire other communities, and discusses associated innovations in the field of local governance. Thus, it mainly addresses the Brest metropolis and its interactions with the metropolitan Pole of the Pays de Brest which gathers the Brest metropolis and six other inter-communalities (EPCI, public establishment of inter-communal collaboration). After an overview of the situation and the main stakes (a contrasted landscape of urban and rural spaces in terms of demography, social-economical indicators, electric power supply and energy consumption), the authors report measures adopted in the field of energy and climate, and lessons which can be learned to manage public policies. They notably highlight collaborations between the metropolis and small communities which may contribute to ecological transition
[en] After a discussion of the characterization of the security of supply (match between supply and demand on the long and medium terms), and having shown that the planned closure of steerable capacities in Europe should be better taken into account in order to guarantee the security of supply before 2030, this note comments the rate of development of intermittent renewable energies. It notices that these energies have a smaller guaranteed power, outlines that France, Germany and Belgium display the highest deficits of steerable power, that a high share of intermittent renewable energy within the energy mix increases the probability of grid destabilization, and increases the steering complexity, and that it is necessary to adapt grids and to develop demand flexibility. The authors outline that energy transition is poorly coordinated at the European level, which increases this weakening. Some recommendations are finally stated. An appendix presents the main hypotheses, uncertainties and observations related to this study.
[en] The authors of a first article propose a discussion of the impacts of the Covid-19 crisis on the electric power system: strong decrease of demand and modification of the load curve, strong price decrease with a negative impact of actors' incomes, instability of the electricity system with reduced margins (discussion of the situation in Germany and UK). A second document proposes a similar discussion from the point of view of RTE. It addresses the evolution of electricity consumption (situation before the crisis, issue of assessment of the health emergency, assessment of the decrease of consumption related to the health crisis and comparison with meteorological impacts and with social movements of December 2019, evolution of the daily user profile, of industrial profiles, and in the housing sector, comparison with neighbouring European countries, suitable character of RTE's model), the electricity production (evolution, impact on trans-border electric power exchanges, risks for the production-consumption balance due to the stopping of the economic activity), the system operation (evolution of CO2 emissions, evolution of the renewable energy share), and the economic situation (evolution of electricity prices and consequences)
[en] After a presentation of the members of the French High Council for Climate, this annual report proposes a set of recommendations regarding climate policy to ensure the compatibility between laws and large national project on the one side, and the French national low carbon strategy, to strengthen instruments of climate policies, to identify and to implement necessary structural changes to prepare the French economy and society to carbon neutrality, to ensure a fair transition, to articulate the national low carbon strategy at all scales, to systematically assess the impact of policies and arrangements on greenhouse gas emissions, and to strengthen the reviewed national low carbon strategy project. Then, it discusses and outlines that, despite a structured framework, defined objectives are not reached, and how to identify and solve deadlocks. Additional texts propose an overview of climate policy in France, and of the national low carbon strategy, recommendations for the new national strategy, a comment on the origin of greenhouse gas emissions in France, a discussion of the necessary consistency of public action with climate-related commitments, of aspects of the debate which may shed a light on energy transition, an analysis of the elaboration of the bill project on mobilities, a recommendation about the evolution of the carbon tax, and an evocation of the example of the Reunion Island. Tables propose a comparative overview of neutrality objectives in different countries (France, European Union, United Kingdom, New Zealand, California, Sweden, Denmark and Norway), emissions per sector and per gas obtained through the first carbon budget of the French national low carbon strategy, and a comparison between objectives and results.
[en] As 2019 saw Europe's hottest ever temperatures recorded, the health and economic crises are stress tests for the French Government's climate ambitions. If there should only be one take away recommendation from this report, it is that the recovery plan should ban all support for carbon- intensive sectors and be steered as much as possible towards effective measures for lowering greenhouse gas emissions. First do no harm, then pave the way for the low-carbon transition. is condition is necessary, in light of the rising climate emergency and its increasing impacts, possible, as known and accessible solutions exist already today, valuable, given the co-benefits of climate action for employment and health, and unavoidable - anticipating it will allow competitiveness. This annual report includes several appendixes: the methodology used, a press release, a regional mapping of greenhouse gas emissions per sector of activity, an executive summary in English and Spanish, and 7 external contributions: - The macro-economic effects of an energy transition revival (Ademe); - Evaluation of a low-carbon national strategy second scenario without carbon tax and ad hoc fictive prices (Ademe); - The CO2 emissions tariffing in France (Commissariat General au developpement durable); - Qualitative study on the climate policies consideration by the regions (Kantar); - The mobility policies in Hauts-de-France region, social challenges standing the climate test (France Strategie); - Fair transitions (ENS/EHESS); - French people and the climate transition (Harris Interactive)
[en] Within the past century, the development of energy sources - mainly stock energy ones like coal, oil and natural gas - has followed a rather simple economic path: based on an increasing demand for energy, each source developed steadily, allowing a never-seen-before increase of wealth. In a world without limits, economic models may ignore physical constraints. The challenge of climate change and the possibility of resource exhaustion (both in energy sources and key materials) require economic thinking to take into account the physical world. This has led to the emergence of bio-economics, which was the subject of 2016 session of this series of Les Houches meetings. Then the concept of EROI was placed at the center of the study week. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions down to zero by 2050 will involve abstaining from using a large amount of fossil fuels. By that time, we will have to manage stock and flux energy sources together, to substitute certain energy sources for others, and to modify energy consumption patterns. This calls for a trans-disciplinary effort, widely recommended but rarely attempted. Indeed, most quantitative models used in economy hardly satisfy the first two laws of thermodynamics, whereas inputs in energy and materials, as well as waste assimilation by the environment, should be made explicit. Entropy variations of the biosphere could then provide a universal metric for the anthropic pressure on the global ecosystem. The main interdisciplinary themes to be addressed during the session will be: Physical constraints on energy technologies; Availability of raw materials; Energy externalities; EROI; Energy and networks (cities, power grids,..); Energy storage and power stability; Intermittence of supply and demand; Multi-energy networks; Physics-economy interface: thermodynamics, statistical physics, social statistics; History of physics/economy hybridization; History of energy transitions; Money and energy in the long run; Stock-flow models and thermodynamics; Spatial scaling of actions; Financial mechanisms for the energy transition; How to implement action from the international level (COP21 and the Paris agreement) to the local scale; Political and institutional context. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - The energy of IPCC.....or the IPCC of energy (Celine Guivarch); 2 - Physical and economic analysis of energy transition scenarios: Methodology and first results (Sandra Bouneau et al.); 3 - The ThreeME model, The economic effects of a decrease in GES emissions (Gael Callonnec et al.); 4 - On Economics and Energy (Juergen Mimkes); 5 - Natural Resources in the Theory of Production Georgescu-Roegen/Daly versus Solow/Stiglitz (Quentin Couix); 6 - Useful exergy is key in obtaining plausible APFs and in recognizing the role of energy in economic growth: Portugal 1960-2009 (Joao Santos et al.); 7 - Energy and IPCC scenarios (Gilles Ramstein); 8 - System Dynamics Thinking and its contribution to Geophysical Economics: Modeling long-term trends in Structural Raw Materials Supply, Demand and Pricing (Olivier Vidal et al.); 9 - More than an energy issue we have a problem of materials (Jose Halloy); 10 - It's not climate change - it's everything change (Margaret Atwood); 11 - Resources, the Economy and the Ecosystem (and the Seneca Effect) (Ugo Bardi); 12 - grid stability, renewable energy and their turbulent dynamics (Katrin Schmietendorf et al.); 13 - Identifying and Evaluating Low-Carbon Daily Mobility Solutions in French Suburbs, Modeling and results (Nicolas Raillard); 14 - Macroeconomic modeling of energy transitions (accounting for money and energy) (Carey W. King); 15 - Predicting and preventing harmful input fluctuations in transmission grids - project NEtworks and STORage (Stefan Wieland et al.); 16 - Third Industrial Revolution in Hauts-de-France, A way to enhance energy transition at the local scale? (Eric Vidalenc); 17 - Industrial Revolutions, Development Blocks and Energy Transitions (Astrid Kander); 18 - What Thermodynamics can teach us about Economy: theory and practice (Christophe Goupil et al.); 19 - Macroeconomic models with physical and monetary dimension based on constrained dynamics (Oliver Richters); 20 - Energy transition and European energy policy (Adina Crisan-Revol); 21 - Finance and Energy (Mireille Martini); 22 - Summing it up: back to basics (Jean-Marc Jancovici)
[en] In-between the limits fixed by the available resources and the physical susceptibility of the geosphere, Physical Sciences have to play a part in building our common future, together with other sciences, as we focused during the first session of the school. During the second session of the school we considered the Sustainable Energy challenge taken up on a world-wide basis, giving rise to very diverse energy scenarios. This third session will start with a focus on the so-called EROI index (Energy Return on (Energy) Invested) of energy systems. Case studies point to the various perimeters that can be considered when calculating the Energy Invested. Besides, societies use a mix of energy sources having different EROIs indices, and the ways these sources contribute to a societal EROI will be addressed. A second part of the session will be devoted to a number of key-factors entering the calculation of EROIs: availability of resources, capacity of energy storage, structure and efficiency of energy grids. As an example, renewable energies have a high potential, but capturing, converting, storing and distributing these energies require important amounts of mineral resources. The associated amount of primary energy needed has to be evaluated. Besides entropy limits, technical, social and economic limits which make our use of scarce metals highly dispersive. These constraints have to be taken into account when designing future energy scenarios. A third part will be concerned with economic modeling incorporating biophysical constraints, such as energy availability and entropy production. Various recent approaches aiming at generating models with an intrinsic dynamics will be discussed. The third edition of this workshop at the Ecole de Physique des Houches aims at exposing and exploring the potential contributions of Physics to the energy challenge. Numerous roads of ongoing research will cross and cross-fertilize in the program, profiting a second objective of the workshop: design the knowledge basis for young physicists and engineers who will implement the energy transition. This vast scientific program cannot and will not be exhausted in a one week seminar. On the contrary, the workshop Energy Scenarios: Which Research in Physics? Is only the third one in an expected longer series. This document brings together the available presentations (slides): 1 - After Paris COP21: The New Climate Policy Momentum (Jean-Pascal van Ypersele); 2 - Challenges for climate science after Paris (Robert Vautard); 3 - The net EROI for solar PV: a case study for Spain (Pedro A. Prieto); 4 - History, applications, numerical values and problems with the calculation of EROI (Energy Return on energy) Investment (Charles A. S. Hall); 5 - Renewable Systems from pre-modern periods: intermittency issues and resources management (Mathieu Arnoux); 6 - Estimations of very long-term time series of fossil fuels global EROI (Victor Court, Florian Fizaine); 7 - Examining The Relation between Quality of Life and Biophysical vs Economic Conditions (Jessica G. Lambert); 8 - Suppose we agree how to calculate EROIs... so/now what? (Carey W. King); 9 - Grid, DG and demand control: operation vs. evolution (N. Hadjsaid); 10 - The use of intermittent sources for electricity production in Germany, Sweden, Europe (F. Wagner); 11 - Energy transmission networks at different scales: Method, results and limits (Johannes Dorfner); 12 - The EROIs of Power Plants - why are they so different? You never find two publications with the same results... (Daniel Weissbach); 13 - Overview of existing and innovative batteries, impact of the storage on the renewable electricity life cycle (Fabien Perdu); 14 - Power to gas to power, Solution or dead lock? (Georges Sapy); 15 - Smart Grids: A high-tech [r]evolution to facilitate the energy transition (Andrei Nekrassov); 16 - Natural Resources in a Monetary Macro-dynamics Work in progress (Gael Giraud); 17 - Hybrid LCA-I/O approach to estimate EROI, Application to wind power (Cyril Francois); 18 - Mineral resources availability and recycling limits: A constraint for ambitious and sustainable energy scenarios (Philippe Bihouix); 19 - Biophysical economics: Essential for the second half of the age of oil (Charles A. S. Hall, Kent Klitgaard); 20 - Transition Engineering Scenarios, What EROI tells us about the future (Susan Krumdieck); 21 - Dynamical Economic model in a finite world (Christophe Goupil, Eric Herbert, Yves D'Angelo, Quentin Couix); 22 - Long-term endogenous economic growth and energy transitions (Victor Court, Pierre-Andre Jouvet, Fredric Lantz); 23 - Growth, productivity and oil history - The Gordon knot (Michel Lepetit); 24 - Taking climate change seriously (Ivar Ekeland); 25 - Dedicating multi-scale approaches to low carbon prospective studies (Nadia Maizi); 26 - EROI and the zero lower bound (Michel Lepetit); 27 - Summing it up: A couple of implications for collective decision (Jean-Marc Jancovici)