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[en] The dynamics of photostopping iodine atoms from electrically oriented ICl molecules was numerically studied based on their orientational probability distribution functions. Velocity distributions of the iodine atoms and their production rates were investigated for orienting electrical fields of various intensities. For the ICl precursor beams with an initial rotational temperature of ∼ 1 K, the production of the iodine atoms near zero speed will be improved by about ∼ 5 times when an orienting electrical field of ∼ 200 kV/cm is present. A production rate of ∼ 0.5‰ is obtained for photostopped iodine atoms with speeds less than 10 m/s, which are suitable for magnetic trapping. The electrical orientation of ICl precursors and magnetic trapping of photostopped iodine atoms in situ can be conveniently realized with a pair of charged ring magnets. With the maximal value of the trapping field being ∼ 0.28 T, the largest trapping speed is ∼ 7.0 m/s for the iodine atom. (paper)
[en] The scientific basis of all-solid-state lithium batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes is reviewed briefly, touching upon solid electrolytes, electrode materials, electrolyte/electrode interface phenomena, fabrication, and evaluation. The challenges and prospects are outlined as well. (topical review)
[en] With increasing environmental pressure and the promotion of structural reforms on the supply side, a trend of transformation and upgrading is inevitable in coal-fired power generation. This study aims to analyze the historical evolution and predict the development trends of subcritical (Sub-C), supercritical (SC) and ultra-supercritical (USC) coal-fired power generation technologies in China. Employing the hierarchical clustering method, we divided 29 Chinese Provinces into four clusters based on their resource endowment, economic development level, technological development and power supply structure. Then, with the Bass model, we analyzed the national- and provincial-level diffusion processes of these three technologies. The results show that currently, at the national level, Sub-C coal-fired power generation technology is in the mature stage, SC technology is in the late growth period, and USC technology is in the rapid growth phase. Further, the diffusion of these three technologies has different characteristics in different clusters of provinces, and it is being transferred from economically developed eastern provinces to economically underdeveloped central and western provinces where coal resources are relatively rich. This research is helpful to the government in making policies to optimize the technical and regional structures of coal-fired power generation.
[en] On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to ‘trap’ the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.
[en] Properties of photoluminescence and Förster energy transfer dynamics based on an organic pyridium salt trans-4-[p-(N-Hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)Styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASPI) and organic small molecule Alq3 in PMMA polymeric thin films are investigated by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescent spectra as well as theoretical calculation. The observation of reduced emission intensity and the fluorescent lifetime of Alq3 is demonstrated, while the ASPI emission gradually increases and is finally dominant in the PL spectra with increasing ASPI doping concentration. Such results show that there exists an efficient Förster energy transfer (FET) from Alq3 to ASPI due to the large spectral overlap between ASPI absorption and Alq3 emission. The difference between the theoretical FET efficiency and the experimental data is caused by the lower mobility of the Alq3 exciton in the PMMA matrix. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)
[en] CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were integrated with polyethyleneimine-coated carbon dots (PEI-CDs) to form a dually emitting probe for heparin. The red fluorescence of the CdTe QDs is quenched by the PEI-CDs due to electrostatic interactions. In the presence of heparin, the blue fluorescence of PEI-CDs remains unaffected, while its quenching effect on the fluorescence of CdTe QDs is strongly reduced. A ratiometric fluorometric assay was worked out. The ratio of the fluorescences at 595 and 436 nm serves as the analytical signal. Response is linear in the concentration range of 50–600 ng·mL−1 (0.1–1.2 U·mL−1) of heparin. The limit of detection is 20 ng·mL−1 (0.04 U·mL−1). This makes the method a valuable tool for heparin monitoring during postoperative and long-term care. This assay is relatively free from the interference by other analogues which commonly co-exist with heparin in samples, and it is more robust than single-wavelength based assays. .
[en] An organic dye salt trans-4-[p-(N-hydroxyethyl-N-methylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASPI) is doped with an electron transport organic molecule tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) in a host matrix of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is studied. By efficient Forster energy transfer from Alq3 to ASPI, it is demonstrated that the ASE threshold of ASPI:Alq3:PMMA waveguide (about 11μJ/pulse) is much lower than that of ASPI:PMMA system (about 38μJ/pulse). Meanwhile, the peak position of ASE can be controlled by the effect of film thickness on waveguide modes. We show that the ASE peak position can be tuned over 37nm. These characteristics indicate the ASPI:Alq3 system as a promising gain medium for optical amplifiers and organic semiconductor lasers
[en] In microwave circuit and aerial system, impedance matching is very important. Liquid stub tuner is a new type of impedance matching device. In the HT-7 Tokamak Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system, authors have already adopted liquid stub tuner to replace the conventional stub tuner. It is urgent to develop a control system of the liquid stub tuner. This paper mainly introduces the design and realization of the liquid stub tuner control system, and briefly introduces its three controlling functions: local control, remote control and computer control. (authors)
[en] An Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) system with a radio frequency (RF) power of 4 × 1.5 MW was developed for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). High RF power transmitters were designed as a part of the research and development (R and D) for an ICRF system with long pulse operation at megawatt levels in a frequency range of 25 MHz to 70 MHz. Studies presented in this paper cover the following parts of the high power transmitter: the three staged high power amplifier, which is composed of a 5 kW wideband solid state amplifier, a 100 kW tetrode drive stage amplifier and a 1.5 MW tetrode final stage amplifier, and the DC high voltage power supply (HVPS). Based on engineering design and static examinations, the RF transmitters were tested using a matched dummy load where an RF output power of 1.5 MW was achieved. The transmitters provide 6 MW RF power in primary phase and will reach a level up to 12 MW after a later upgrade. The transmitters performed successfully in stable operations in EAST and HT-7 devices. Up to 1.8 MW of RF power was injected into plasmas in EAST ICRF heating experiments during the 2010 autumn campaign and plasma performance was greatly improved.