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[en] Highlights: • Structure, sinterability, and dielectric properties of CaWO_4–YLiF_4 were studied. • CaWO_4 can be densified (TD 97%) at 750 °C/2 h by YLiF_4 doping. • Excellent microwave dielectric properties could be obtained. - Abstract: Structures and sintering behaviors of (1 − x) CaWO_4–xYLiF_4 (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramic have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in this work. The microwave dielectric properties were measured with a network analyzer at the frequency of about 8–15 GHz. Limited solid solution could be formed within the compositional range of x < 0.1. The sintering temperature of CaWO_4 could successfully be reduced to ∼750 °C/2 h by doping with small amount of YLiF_4. An optimized microwave dielectric properties with ϵ_r = 10.5, Q × f = 73 000 GHz and τ_f = −37.7 ppm/°C could be obtained after sintered at the 750 °C for 2 h for x = 0.04 compositions. XRD and back scattering SEM analysis indicated that the (1 − x) CaWO_4–xYLiF_4 (x = 0.04) ceramic could be chemically compatible with Ag after sintering at 750 °C/2 h
[en] To rapidly and accurately investigate the performance of the dielectric loaded rectangular Cerenkov maser, a simplified nonlinear theory is proposed, in which the variations of wave amplitude and wave phase are determined by two coupled first-order differential equations. Through combining with the relativistic equation of motion and adopting the forward wave assumption, the evolutions of the forward wave power, the power growth rate, the axial wave number, the accumulated phase offset, and the information of the particle movement can be obtained in a single-pass calculation. For an illustrative example, this method is used to study the influences of the beam current, the gap distance between the beam and the dielectric surface, and the momentum spread on the forward wave. The variations of the saturated power and the saturation length with the working frequency for the beams with different momentum spreads have also been studied. The result shows that the beam—wave interaction is very sensitive to the electron beam state. To further verify this simplified theory, a comparison with the result produced from a rigorous method is also provided, we find that the evolution curves of the forward wave power predicted by the two methods exhibit excellent agreement. In practical applications, the developed theory can be used for the design and analysis of the rectangular Cerenkov maser
[en] Fano resonance exhibits high sensitivity and promising applications in the field of ultra-sensitive plasmonic sensor. In this work, the Fano lineshape in spectra of gold rectangular split nanorings (RSNRs) is investigated using the finite element method. The simulation results figure out the Fano lineshape could be modulated by the positions of split gap in RSNRs for symmetry breaking, which is explained by the plasmonic hybridization theory. Furthermore, the high order bonding plasmon mode H in absorption spectra exhibits high sensitivity in visible region. Our investigations here are beneficial for the design and application of ultra-sensitive LSPR sensor in visible region
[en] In this study, a type of bacteria enzyme-triggered antibacterial surface with a controlled release of Ag ions was developed. Firstly, chitosan-silver nanocomposites (Chi@Ag NPs) were in situ synthesized via using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. Chi@Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Subsequently, Chi@Ag NPs and hyaluronic acid (HA) were used to fabricate antibacterial composite coating via Layer-by-Layer (LBL) self-assembly method. The successful construction of Chi@Ag NPs/HA composite coating was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and contact angle measurements, respectively. Then, the amount of released Ag ion was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which demonstrated that the release of Ag ions from the surface could be triggered by enzyme (e.g. hyaluronidase). A series of antibacterial tests in vitro, including zone of inhibition test, bacterial viability assay, antibacterial rate measurement and bacteria adhesion observation, demonstrated that the enzyme-responsive surface could inhibit the growth of bacteria. On the whole, this study provides an alternative approach for the fabrication of antibacterial surfaces on synthetic materials in various fields with the minimal side effects on surrounding environment and human body. .
[en] In this paper, we focus mainly on evaluating the anisotropy evolution in Zircaloy-4 tubes with respect to hydrogen pickup which tends to affect the deformation behavior and fracture elongation due to embrittlement phenomenon induced by Zr hydrides. To capture the complex material behaviors of the H-charged (166 ppm) Zircaloy-4 tubes, we have applied the Hill anisotropic yield criterion by carrying out several material tests, such as the axial tensile, ring tensile, and axial crushing tests, for calibrating the anisotropic coefficients based on the directional strength and strain ratios. It makes possible to simulate the directional flow curves of the as-received and the H-charged Zircaloy-4 tubes based on the directional strength ratios along the axial and hoop directions, respectively, as well as a variation in deformation modes in the axial crushing test with substantial accuracy.
[en] Epilepsy that originates outside of the temporal lobe can present some of the most challenging problems for surgical therapy, especially for patients with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative refractory extra-temporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of pre-surgical 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) and high-resolution MRI (HR-MRI) co-registration in patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory ETLE, and compare their surgical outcomes. Sixty-seven patients with conventional MRI-negative refractory ETLE were prospectively included for pre-surgical 18F-FDG PET and HR-MRI examinations. Under the guidance of 18F-FDG PET and HR-MRI co-registration, HR-MRI images were re-read. Based on the image result changes from first reading to re-reading, patients were divided into three groups: Change-1 (lesions of subtle abnormality could be identified in re-read), Change-2 (non-specific abnormalities reported in the first reading were considered as lesions on HR-MRI re-read) and No-change. Post-surgical follow-ups were conducted for up to 59 months. Visual analysis of 18F-FDG PET showed focal or regional abnormality in 46 patients (68.6%), while the abnormal rate increased to 94.0% (P < 0.05) by co-registration. Of the 67 patients, 46.3% of them were identified as Change-1, and 11.9% as Change-2 after co-registration and HR-MRI re-read. Patients with Change-1 and -2 were more likely to be recommended to receive surgical resection (P < 0.001). In the 17 post-surgical patients, 88% had good outcomes, whereas 11.7% had poor outcomes during our study period. Pre-surgical evaluation by co-registration of 18F-FDG PET and HR-MRI could improve the identification of the epileptogenic onset zone (EOZ), and may further guide the surgical decision-making and improve the outcome of the refractory ETLE with normal conventional MRI; therefore, it should be recommended as a standard procedure for pre-surgical evaluation of these patients. (orig.)
[en] Because magnetic resonance imaging–guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) offers exquisite soft tissue contrast and the ability to image tissues in arbitrary planes, the interest in this technology has increased dramatically in recent years. However, intrinsic geometric distortion stemming from both the system hardware and the magnetic properties of the patient affects MR images and compromises the spatial integrity of MRI-based radiation treatment planning, given that for real-time MRIgRT, precision within 2 mm is desired. In this article, we discuss the causes of geometric distortion, describe some well-known distortion correction algorithms, and review geometric distortion measurements from 12 studies, while taking into account relevant imaging parameters. Eleven of the studies reported phantom measurements quantifying system-dependent geometric distortion, while 2 studies reported simulation data quantifying magnetic susceptibility–induced geometric distortion. Of the 11 studies investigating system-dependent geometric distortion, 5 reported maximum measurements less than 2 mm. The simulation studies demonstrated that magnetic susceptibility–induced distortion is typically smaller than system-dependent distortion but still nonnegligible, with maximum distortion ranging from 2.1 to 2.6 mm at a field strength of 1.5 T. As expected, anatomic landmarks containing interfaces between air and soft tissue had the largest distortions. The evidence indicates that geometric distortion reduces the spatial integrity of MRI-based radiation treatment planning and likely diminishes the efficacy of MRIgRT. Better phantom measurement techniques and more effective distortion correction algorithms are needed to achieve the desired spatial precision.