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[en] By studying the image two-dimensional power spectra or autocorrelations projected by an asteroid as it rotates, it is possible to locate its rotational pole and derive its three axes dimensions through speckle interferometry under certain assumptions of uniform, geometric scattering, and triaxial ellipsoid shape. However, in cases where images can be reconstructed, the need for making the assumptions is obviated. Furthermore, the ultimate goal for speckle interferometry of image reconstruction will lead to mapping albedo features (if they exist) as impact areas or geological units. The first glimpses of the surface of an asteroid were obtained from images of 4 Vesta reconstructed from speckle interferometric observations. These images reveal that Vesta is quite Moon-like in having large hemispheric-scale albedo features. All of its lightcurves can be produced from a simple model developed from the images. Although undoubtedly more intricate than the model, Vesta's lightcurves can be matched by a model with three dark and four bright spots. The dark areas so dominate one hemisphere that a lightcurve minimum occurs when the maximum cross-section area is visible. The triaxial ellipsoid shape derived for Vesta is not consistent with the notion that the asteroid has an equilibrium shape in spite of its having apparently been differentiated
[en] This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs
[en] We discuss the relation between the superembedding method for deriving worldvolume actions for D-branes and the method of partially broken global supersymmetry based upon linear and non-linear realizations of SUSY. We give the explicit relation for the cases of space filling branes in three and four dimensions and show that the standard F-constraint of the superembedding method is the source of the required covariant non-linear constraints for the PBGS method
[en] Twenty-six lightcurves of Psyche are presented together with UBV photometry and phase functions from 1975 and 1976. Combining photometric data from this opposition with those from previous apparitions resulted in a mean phase coefficient in V of 0.026 + or - 0.002 mag/deg. No significant phase-dependent variation in the U-B color could be determined from the data. The B-V color, however, displayed a reddening with phase of 0.0010 + or - 0.0004 mag/deg. It is concluded that compositional variations over Psyche's surface are minor, and that Psyche's opposition effect is typical of that for other well-observed asteroids. Psyche's behavior is accounted for if, to the first order, its shape is that of a triaxial ellipsoid with axial ratios near 5:4:3
[en] Lightcurves and UBV photometry of Ceres from the 1975-1976 apparition are presented. The synodic period is 0.37812 + or 0.00004 day, the mean absolute V magnitude is 3.61 + or 0.03, and the phase coefficient is 0.040 + or - 0.001 mag/deg. The U-B and B-V phase coefficients are +0.0015 + or - 0.0007 and +0.0006 + or - 0.0003 mag/deg, respectively. The colors at zero phase are B-V +0.70 + or - 0.01 and U-B +0.41 + or 0.01
[en] These notes were given as lectures at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge Theory 2010. We describe the structure of scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, focussing on the maximally supersymmetric theory to highlight the hidden symmetries which appear. Using the Britto, Cachzo, Feng and Witten (BCFW) recursion relations we solve the tree-level S-matrix in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and describe how it produces a sum of invariants of a large symmetry algebra. We review amplitudes in the planar theory beyond tree level, describing the connection between amplitudes and Wilson loops, and discuss the implications of the hidden symmetries.
[en] We present an algorithm for writing down explicit formulas for all tree amplitudes in N=8 supergravity, obtained from solving the supersymmetric on-shell recursion relations. The formula is patterned after one recently obtained for all tree amplitudes in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory which involves nested sums of dual superconformal invariants. We find that all graviton amplitudes can be written in terms of exactly the same structure of nested sums with two modifications: the dual superconformal invariants are promoted from N=4 to N=8 superspace in the simplest manner possible--by squaring them--and certain additional nondual conformal gravity dressing factors (independent of the superspace coordinates) are inserted into the nested sums. To illustrate the procedure we give explicit closed-form formulas for all NMHV, NNMHV and NNNMV gravity superamplitudes.
[en] We review the structure of gauge theory scattering amplitudes at tree level and describe how a compact expression can be found which encodes all the tree-level amplitudes in the maximally supersymmetric N=4 theory. The expressions for the amplitudes reveal a dual superconformal symmetry. We describe how these ideas can be extended to leading singularities and the loop integrand in the planar theory and discuss the appearance of dual conformal symmetry in higher-dimensional gauge theories. This paper is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories’. (review)
[en] Complete text of publication follows. Observations of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) by the Resolute Bay VHF radar, located in Nunavut, Canada (75 deg N, 95 deg W), and by the ALWIN VHF radar, located in Andenes, Norway (69 deg N, 16 deg E) are characterized by differences of occurrence rate and PMSE strengths, with generally lower levels at Resolute Bay. Even though both radars are using calibrated observations, the role of the different radar hardware and antenna systems operated at both sites still represents a cause for concern in comparisons. Now, PMSE observations with identical radar hardware and identical analysis software are possible using the recently installed SKiYMET meteor radar at Eureka (80 deg N, 86 deg W) and the SKiYMET meteor radar at Andenes. Eureka is in the same longitudinal sector as Resolute Bay, but 5 degrees in latitude to the north. A 4-week measurement campaign was performed during July in 2008, with both the Andenes and Eureka meteor radars running in a special mode designed for PMSE studies. Both radars are calibrated using cosmic sky noise variations. In addition, the Andenes SKiYMET radar is also co-located with the ALWIN VHF radar in Andenes and may be used for the verification of results. Lower levels of PMSE strength were found at Eureka, confirming the earlier observations at Resolute Bay. The observations are discussed in relation to dynamics, thermal conditions, and ionization. Strong indications exist that the observed differences of PMSE strength are related to the different levels of ionisation due to precipitating particles in the auroral oval and inside the polar cap. Global maps of precipitating energetic electrons (energy band: 6.5 keV - 9.46 keV) and energetic protons (energy band 80 keV - 240 keV) derived from POES satellites clearly indicate that Eureka and Resolute Bay are always inside the polar cap where, under geomagnetically quiet conditions, ionisation due to particle precipitation is missing.