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[en] VEC is a fault transient model which calculates the structure temperatures, bulk gas mass flows, gas pressures and gas temperatures throughout an Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR). It was devised to predict the level of natural circulation gas mass flow that would occur in the reactor in the event that the electrically driven gas circulators failed. The code predictions have now been used to substantiate the claim that natural circulation is an adequate, diverse alternative to the gas circulators in providing primary coolant flow to remove decay heat from the fuel. This diversity is a design requirement for the new AGRs. This paper describes the VEC model and presents some comparisons of VEC predictions with measurements taken during specially devised natural circulation tests on two operational AGRs
[en] Most kraft pulp mills in Canada have installed some form of noncondensable gas (NCG) system to collect and treat air emissions that include odorous total reduced sulphur compounds with hydrogen sulphide and the organic compounds methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide or dimethyl disulphide. However, the extent of these systems varies greatly. Therefore, in order to optimize the design and operation of these NCG systems, it would be beneficial to have a simple but accurate method of predicting emissions without direct measures. This paper presented a method to predict total reduced sulphur (TRS) emissions from kraft pulp mills using correlations based on the vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) theory. The brown stock washing area of the Howe Sound mill provided samples which were tested to determine the concentration of TRS compounds. Heat and material balances of the washing line were constructed using CADSim Plus simulation software. Emissions of these volatile sulphur compounds were simulated by incorporating a VLE module into the software. This study also extended the simulation balances to include NCG emissions from process equipment. It was concluded that the newly proposed method can be used to optimize the operation of NCG systems, to evaluate TRS control alternatives and to improve the accuracy of environmental reporting. 14 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs
[en] The Advanced ACTPol upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope aims to improve the measurement of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and polarization, using four new dichroic detector arrays fabricated on 150-mm silicon wafers. These bolometric cameras use AlMn transition-edge sensors, coupled to feedhorns with orthomode transducers for polarization sensitivity. The first deployed camera is sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz. Here, we present the laboratory characterization of the thermal parameters and optical efficiencies for the two newest fielded arrays, each sensitive to both 90 and 150 GHz. We provide assessments of the parameter uniformity across each array with evaluation of systematic uncertainties. Lastly, we show the arrays’ initial performance in the field.