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[en] Since bismuth germanate (BGO) crystal, a well known inorganic scintillator, has been widely used in high energy physics and in nuclear radiation detection, it is necessary to consider its irradiation hardness (radiation resistance). In this work, the BGO crystals were irradiated by 14 MeV fast neutrons with two differential fluences and used as the detector of a γ spectrometer. The background spectra and 137Cs γ spectra were measured respectively. The irradiation hardness of the BGO crystals has been investigated through the changes of the spectra after irradiation and the recoveries after annealing at different temperature. (authors)
[en] We demonstrate the controlled synthesis of ZnO branched nanorod arrays on fluorine-doped SnO2-coated glass substrates by the hierarchical solution growth method. In the secondary growth, the concentration of Zn(NO3)2/hexamethylenetetramine plays an important role in controlling the morphology of the branched nanorod arrays, besides that of diaminopropane used as a structure-directing agent to induce the growth of branches. The population density and morphology of the branched nanorod arrays depend on those of the nanorod arrays obtained from the primary growth, which can be modulated though the concentration of Zn(NO3)2/hexamethylenetetramine in the primary growth solution. The dye-sensitized ZnO branched nanorod arrays exhibit much stronger optical absorption as compared with its corresponding primary nanorod arrays, suggesting that the addition of the branches improves light harvesting. The dye-sensitized solar cell based on the optimized ZnO branched nanorod array reaches a conversion efficiency of 1.66% under the light radiation of 1000 W/m2. The branched nanorod arrays can also be applied in other application fields of ZnO.
[en] Highlights: • Form-stable dodecane/fumed silica composite for cold storage is prepared. • A suggesting hypothesis that explains infiltration mechanism is proposed. • The performance of the composite phase change material is investigated. • Numerical simulation of system is carried out and results fit well. - Abstract: A kind of form-stable composite phase change materials used for cold thermal energy storage is prepared by absorbing dodecane into the hydrophobic fumed silica. With relatively suitable pore diameter and hydrophobic groups, hydrophobic fumed silica is beneficial to the penetration and infiltration of dodecane and the leakage problem solving. Scanned by electron micrographs and Fourier transformation infrared, the composite phase change material is characterized to be just physical penetration. Besides, the differential scanning calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis reveals the high enthalpy, good thermal stability and cycling performance of this composite phase change material. What’s more, Hot-Disk thermal constants analyzer demonstrates that the composite phase change material has low thermal conductivity which is desired in cold storage application. In the experiment, a cold energy storage system is set up and the results from the experiment show that the system has excellent performance of cold storage by incorporating composite phase change material. Apart from that, the experimental data is found to have a great agreement with the numerical simulation which is carried out by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT.
[en] Highlights: • Heat accumulation in PCM causes failures of passive thermal management systems. • The introduction of forced air convection improves the reliability of PCMs. • Temperature distribution in the hybrid system remains uniform. • Active cooling and PCMs play separate roles in battery thermal management. • Numerical results agree with experiment data and give theoretic insights. - Abstract: Passive thermal management systems using phase change materials (PCMs) provides an effective solution to the overheating of lithium ion batteries. But this study shows heat accumulation in PCMs caused by the inefficient cooling of air natural convection leads to thermal management system failures: The temperature in a battery pack operating continuously outranges the safety limit of 60 °C after two cycles with discharge rate of 1.5 C and 2 C. Here a hybrid system that integrates PCMs with forced air convection is presented. This combined system successfully prevents heat accumulation and maintains the maximum temperature under 50 °C in all cycles. Study on airspeed effects reveals that thermo-physical properties of PCMs dictate the maximum temperature rise and temperature uniformity in the battery pack, while forced air convection plays a critical role in recovering thermal energy storage capacity of PCMs. A numerical study is also carried out and validated with experiment data, which gives theoretic insights on thermo-physical changes in this hybrid battery thermal management system
[en] Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrodes were synthesized by one-pot hydrothermal method. • Enhanced PEC performances are achieved by Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 film photoelectrodes. • Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrodes possess superior photocarriers transfer abilities. • The optimal Ni content of ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrode is 2 wt%. - Abstract: Nanostructured Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 films were prepared on the FTO conductive glass substrates by a one-pot hydrothermal method. The obtained films consist of nanosheets perpendicular to the FTO glass substrate, exhibiting a net-like porous microstructure. The doping of Ni into the lattice of ZnIn_2S_4 is revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterizations. The results from the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) confirm the existence of Ni in the doped sample. The optical absorption of the Ni-doped samples is slightly stronger than that of the undoped one. Compared with the undoped sample, the Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrodes show enhanced photocurrent response and reach a maximum at the Ni content of 2 wt%. The carrier concentration and mobility of all the samples were estimated by using Hall measurements. The carrier concentration decreases with the increase of Ni content, and 2 wt% Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrode has the highest mobility, which is up to 840 cm"2/Vs. The results from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicate that the lowest charge transfer resistance is achieved by the 2 wt% Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrode, agreeing with its best PEC performance. The photocurrent densities vs. time curves demonstrate that the stability of the 2 wt% Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrode is better than that of the undoped one. The enhanced PEC performance along with good stability make the Ni-doped ZnIn_2S_4 photoelectrode show potentials in the PEC applications such as the water splitting for hydrogen production.
[en] The authors describe the effect of irradiation on some Streptomyces and Aspergillus niger with fast neutron. The death rate(%), production rate(%, W/V), and heredities were determined and analysed. Particularly, five variant types of Strepto. griseous No.1 will be researched in depth
[en] Highlights: • A novel Wood’s alloy/expanded graphite form-stable composite PCM was prepared. • The composite shown high heat storage density and excellent heat transfer ability. • The form-stabilized behaviors were analyzed experimentally in details. • The composite had great potential for use in electronic thermal management. - Abstract: This paper reported a Wood’s alloy/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) with high thermal conductivity and good form-stability. In this composite PCM, Wood’s alloy served as heat storage medium and EG acted as both heat transfer promoter and packaging material. The thermal properties of this composite PCM were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and transient plane source (TPS) method. The results showed that the phase change temperature of the composite was about 70.5 °C. The sensible and latent heat storage densities as well as thermal conductivity were influenced by the mass percentage of Wood’s alloy and the composite’s compacting density. The latent heat storage density and thermal conductivity could reach up to 113.1 J·cm−3 and 65.0 W·m−1·K−1. Appearance observation of the composite revealed that increasing the mass percentage of the alloy and decreasing the compacting density could help to keep the composite form-stable. These findings approved the potential of the Wood’s alloy/EG composite for use in thermal management of high power electronic devices.
[en] Highlights: • Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of RT44HC by 20–60 times. • Thermal conductivity of PCM/EG composites keeps constant before/after melting. • Thermal conductivity of PCMs nearly doubled during phase changing. • Thermal conductivity of composite PCM increases with density and percentage of EG. • The simple model predicts thermal conductivity of EG-based composites accurately. - Abstract: This work studies factors that affect the thermal conductivity of an organic phase change material (PCM), RT44HC/expanded graphite (EG) composite, which include: EG mass fraction, composite PCM density and temperature. The increase of EG mass fraction and bulk density will both enhance thermal conductivity of composite PCMs, by up to 60 times. Thermal conductivity of RT44HC/EG composites remains independent on temperature outside the phase change range (40–45 °C), but nearly doubles during the phase change. The narrow temperature change during the phase change allows the maximum heat flux or minimum temperature for heat source if attaching PCMs to a first (constant temperature) or second (constant heat flux) thermal boundary. At last, a simple thermal conductivity model for EG-based composites is put forward, based on only two parameters: mass fraction of EG and bulk density of the composite. This model is validated with experiment data presented in this paper and in literature, showing this model has general applicability to any composite of EG and poor thermal conductive materials
[en] The paper describes the method and principle for detection of hidden explosive by fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA). The method of detection of explosives by FNAA has the specific properties of simple determination equipments, high reliability, and low detecting cost, and would be beneficial to the applicability and popularization in the field of protecting and securing nation. The contents of nitrogen and oxygen in four explosives, more then ten common materials and TNT samples covered with soil, were measured by FNAA. 14 MeV fast neutrons were generated from (d, t) reaction with a 400 kV Cockcroft Walton type accelerator. The two-dimension distributions for nitro- gen and oxygen counting rates per unit mass of determined matters were obtained, and the characteristic area of explosives and non-explosives can be defined. By computer aided pattern recognition, the samples were identified with low false alarm or omission rates. The Monte-Carlo simulation indicates that there is no any radiation at 15 m apart from neutron source and is safe for irradiation after 1 h. It is suggested that FNAA may be potential in remote controlling for detection hidden explosive system with multi-probe large array. (authors)
[en] 14 MeV neutrons originated in acoustic cavitation fusion were determined using copper threshold detector. According to the nuclear reaction of 14 MeV neutrons with copper, the characteristic γ peaks of some radioactive nuclides were measured and the activation parameters of Cu were optimized. With neutron irradiation time of 50 min, 511 keV characteristic γ peak counts of activated copper pieces with or without ultrasonic field after 30 min and 198 min were respectively determined by NaI detector. Measurement results show that the characteristic γ peak counts of "6"2Cu and "6"4Cu can be respectively determined after 30 min and 198 min. 511 keV characteristic γ peak net count increments are positive values and statistical significance, which indicates that 14 MeV and 2.45 MeV neutron generation rates originated in fusion with ultrasound are greater than that without ultrasound in nuclear reaction liquid. These results verify the nuclear effect of acoustic cavitation (NEAC). The mechanism of NEAC nucleated by neutrons was proposed initially. (authors)