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[en] According to the GIEC CO2 emissions have increased more rapidly between 2000 and 2010 than during the 3 previous decades despite the Kyoto protocol. The situation is alarming and the measures to take to limit the temperature increase to 2 degrees are urgent and drastic. First, we have to stop opposing renewable energies and nuclear energy, they must be consider complementary. Secondly we have no more time to develop clean solutions like carbon sequestration, we have to use on a great scale the solutions that are available now and these solutions are some renewable energies and mainly nuclear energy. Furthermore the countries that are the main producers of CO2 like the US, Europe and China are also the countries that master nuclear energy, so the solution of developing nuclear energy massively is within reach. (A.C.)
[en] Nuclear4Climate is a grass roots initiative which started in 2014, in preparation of COP21. It brings together the many professionals and scientists of the international nuclear community, coordinated via 150 nuclear associations worldwide. Objectives: Decision Makers - Be part of the climate conversation; Recognition of the efficiency of nuclear in climate mitigation. Industry Employees: Nuclear Pride & Advocacy. General Public: Awareness of nuclear as low-carbon energy.
[en] The Nuclear4Climate campaign was initiated by the French Nuclear Society at the end of 2014, in preparation of the COP21 climate conference in Paris which was due to take place in Dec 2015. It was co-founded by SFEN, ANS, and ENS, with strong collaboration with Foratom and WNA. Though the initiative was launched initially to prepare for the Paris conference, it has remained active in the last 5 years, facilitated by SFEN and ENS. Every year, steering committees have met in September, during the IAEA general conference. Position papers have been produced with key messages and positions, and communication activities have been undertaken such as social media communication and video production. Highlights of the activities have been Nuclear4Climate representation for each COPs: In Marrakech in 2016, Bonn in 2017, and Katowice in 2018. The coalition organized side events and managed booths, with strong leadership and involvement from ENSYGN volunteers. This paper will go back to the beginning of the initiative, how it was designed and kicked off, then will review activities with the idea to draw lessons learned and review potential next steps. (author)
[en] At least 80% of the world’s electricity must be low carbon by 2050 to keep the world within 2°C of warming, according to the IPCC. This is a massive global challenge that requires the use of all available low-carbon energy technologies. Nuclear energy is recognized by the IPCC as “an effective greenhouse gas mitigation option” with life cycle emissions “comparable to most renewables”. We need to take immediate steps towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as the world has already used up most of its carbon budget. Nuclear energy is low-carbon, available and competitive in the time frame required. It has avoided the release of 56 gigatonnes of CO_2 since 1971, two years’ worth of emissions at current rates. Additional nuclear energy capacity can be built up in the world’s largest emitting countries: there are more reactors under construction today than at any time in the last 25 years, with BRICS countries leading the way. Existing nuclear power plants are the largest low-carbon electricity source in OECD countries. Operating them for longer is one of the most effective ways to keep greenhouse gas emissions down. Moreover, nuclear generation can operate with renewables energy in order to adapt generation to electricity demand, taking into account variability of certain renewable energy sources. As countries are pursuing different energy policy goals, with different constraints, they should be free to choose from the full portfolio of energy technologies, including renewable energies and nuclear energy, to reduce CO_2 and meet other energy objectives. Very few scenarios have been investigated with mitigation requirements to limit warming to 2°C and implementation of a nuclear phase out. While they need the largest portfolio now, countries will also need the largest portfolio tomorrow: nuclear research should receive support to develop future reactors (generation 4) that will make better use of the Uranium resources, will operate in a safer way, and produce less waste. Renewable energies and Nuclear have to be considered together as part of the electricity mix on the low carbon pathways. (author)
[en] More than 55% of the world population live in towns and towns generate 75 % of direct emissions of CO2 a large part of pollution. Towns become important players in the fight against climate warming. Regulations are implemented in order to reduce city spreading as a more compact town cuts its infrastructure costs concerning urban heating networks and bus transport system as distances are reduced. Studies have shown that urban migrations imply an increase in power consumption of households. In addition, electricity is expected to be the energy used for transport so the security of electricity supply becomes essential for towns. Nuclear reactors can be part of the solution along with renewable energies. Today 43 nuclear reactors in the world generate urban heating, most of them in Eastern Europe and in Russia. In China, at Haiyang, a project involving several AP1000 reactors will allow through cogeneration the heating of millions of square meters of buildings. (A.C.)
[en] According to its “Clean Energy for all Europeans” plan, the EU will need a significant share of its electricity mix coming from nuclear in 2050 to achieve its climate goals. Today, the French nuclear fleet represents about half of the EU capacity. As it was built very fast in the 80s, and a very large share of French reactors will reach 60 years of age between 2040 and 2050. As part of its Programmation Pluriannuelle de l’Energie (PPE)-10 year energy plan, the French government has announced in January 2019 that it lead with the industrial players by 2021 a work program to evaluate, among other things, the option of building new nuclear reactors, as part of a national industrial program. This paper features the highlights from four technical reports published by SFEN in 2018 and 2019: • The cost of new nuclear- SFEN-Mar 2018; • French nuclear in the EU energy system (PRIME simulations)- SFEN-May 2018; • Climate emergency: can we do without nuclear?- SFEN-Oct 2018; • When to decide on the renewal of the French nuclear fleet?- SFEN-Apr 2019. These reports were prepared by the Economics technical section from SFEN, as input into the national debate for the Programmation Pluri-annuelle de l’énergie (PPE) – France 10-year Energy Strategy Plan. (author)
[en] Conclusion of the SFEN: French nuclear fleet is a key factor for achieving French but also European decarbonization. New Nuclear is competitive (with adequate political involvement). Time schedule visibility from the industry will be a key factor of success. By far, the best decision appears to build a first pair of reactors for a 1st production around 2030. This pair would be part of a larger programme (8-10 reactors or more). For the commissioning of these first reactors, in full compliance with the target 2035, the decision should be taken by 2021 at the latest.
[en] This document gathers a series of short articles in which the following players: French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), Electricity of France (EdF), French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), AREVA, ALSTOM, the Association of French Nuclear Industry Exporters (AIFEN), the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and the French Society of Nuclear Energy (SFEN) present their competencies in their respective fields and their strategies and commercial offers for exports. 2 articles are dedicated to the achievements of the French nuclear industry in China and another details the cooperation between SFEN and its foreign counterparts. Another article briefly presents the EPR and ATMEA reactors. (A.C.)
[en] It is clear that future nuclear systems will operate in an environment that will be very different from the electricity systems that accompanied the fast deployment of nuclear power plants in the 1970's and 1980's. As countries fulfil their commitment to de-carbonise their energy systems, low-carbon sources of electricity and in particular variable renewables, will take large shares of the overall generation capacities. This is challenging since in most cases, the timescale for nuclear technology development is far greater than the speed at which markets and policy/regulation frameworks can change. Nuclear energy, which in OECD countries is still the largest source of low-carbon electricity, has a major role to play as a low-carbon dispatchable technology. In its 2 degree scenarios, the International Energy Agency (IEA) projects that nuclear capacity globally could reach over 900 GW by 2050, with a share of electricity generation rising from less than 11% today to about 16%. Nuclear energy could also play a role in the decarbonization of the heat sector, by targeting non-electric applications. The workshop discussed how energy systems are evolving towards low-carbon systems, what the future of energy market needs are, the changing regulatory framework from both the point of view of safety requirements and environmental constraints, and how reactor developers are taking these into account in their designs. In terms of technology, the scope covered all advanced reactor systems under development today, including evolutionary light water reactors (LWRs), small modular reactors (SMRs) - whether LWR technology-based or not, and Generation IV (Gen IV) systems. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) of the workshop