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[en] We have analyzed rotational spectral line emission of OCS, CH3OH, HCOOCH3, and H2CS observed toward the low-mass Class 0 protostellar source IRAS 16293–2422 Source A at a sub-arcsecond resolution (∼0.″6 × 0.″5) with ALMA. Significant chemical differentiation is found on a scale of 50 au. The OCS line is found to trace well the infalling–rotating envelope in this source. On the other hand, the distributions of CH3OH and HCOOCH3 are found to be concentrated around the inner part of the infalling–rotating envelope. With a simple ballistic model of the infalling–rotating envelope, the radius of the centrifugal barrier (a half of the centrifugal radius) and the protostellar mass are evaluated from the OCS data to be from 40 to 60 au and from 0.5 to 1.0 M ⊙, respectively, assuming the inclination angle of the envelope/disk structure to be 60° (90° for the edge-on configuration). Although the protostellar mass is correlated with the inclination angle, the radius of the centrifugal barrier is not. This is the first indication of the centrifugal barrier of the infalling–rotating envelope in a hot corino source. CH3OH and HCOOCH3 may be liberated from ice mantles by weak accretion shocks around the centrifugal barrier and/or by protostellar heating. The H2CS emission seems to come from the disk component inside the centrifugal barrier in addition to the envelope component. The centrifugal barrier plays a central role not only in the formation of a rotationally supported disk but also in the chemical evolution from the envelope to the protoplanetary disk.
[en] In this Letter we report the CO abundance relative to H2 derived toward the circumstellar disk of the T-Tauri star TW Hya from the HD (1 – 0) and C18O (2 – 1) emission lines. The HD (1 – 0) line was observed by the Herschel Space Observatory Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer whereas C18O (2 – 1) observations were carried out with the Submillimeter Array at a spatial resolution of 2.''8 × 1.''9 (corresponding to ∼151 × 103 AU). In the disk's warm molecular layer (T > 20 K) we measure a disk-averaged gas-phase CO abundance relative to H2 of χ(CO) = (0.1-3) × 10–5, substantially lower than the canonical value of χ(CO) = 10–4. We infer that the best explanation of this low χ(CO) is the chemical destruction of CO followed by rapid formation of carbon chains, or perhaps CO2, that can subsequently freeze-out, resulting in the bulk mass of carbon locked up in ice grain mantles and oxygen in water. As a consequence of this likely time-dependent carbon sink mechanism, CO may be an unreliable tracer of H2 gas mass
[en] In this Letter, we model the chemistry of DCO"+ in protoplanetary disks. We find that the overall distribution of the DCO"+ abundance is qualitatively similar to that of CO but is dominated by a thin layer located at the inner disk surface. To understand its distribution, we investigate the different key gas-phase deuteration pathways that can lead to the formation of DCO"+. Our analysis shows that the recent update in the exothermicity of the reaction involving CH_2D"+ as a parent molecule of DCO"+ favors deuterium fractionation in warmer conditions. As a result, the formation of DCO"+ is enhanced in the inner warm surface layers of the disk where X-ray ionization occurs. Our analysis points out that DCO"+ is not a reliable tracer of the CO snow line as previously suggested. We thus predict that DCO"+ is a tracer of active deuterium and, in particular, X-ray ionization of the inner disk
[en] Using a broadband, high spectral resolution survey toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula acquired with Herschel/HIFI as part of the Herschel Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources key program, we derive the abundances of H2O and HDO in the different spatial/velocity components associated with this massive star-forming region: the Hot Core, Compact Ridge, and Plateau. A total of 20 transitions of H218O, 14 of H217O, 37 of HD16O, 6 of HD18O, and 6 of D2O are used in the analysis, spanning from ground state transitions to over 1200 K in upper-state energy. Low-excitation lines are detected in multiple components, but the highest-excitation lines (Eu > 500 K) are well modeled as emitting from a small (∼2'') clump with a high abundance of H2O (χ = 6.5 × 10–4 relative to H2) and a HDO/H2O ratio of 0.003. Using high spatial resolution (1.''5 × 1.''1) images of two transitions of HDO measured by the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array as part of its science verification phase, we identify this component as located near, but not directly coincident with, known continuum sources in the Hot Core region. Significant HDO/H2O fractionation is also seen in the Compact Ridge and Plateau components. The outflowing gas, observed with both emission and absorption components, has a lower HDO/H2O ratio than the compact components in Orion Kleinmann-Low, which we propose could be due to modification by gas-phase shock chemistry.
[en] We report the first high angular resolution imaging (3.″4 × 3.″0) of deuterated formaldehyde (HDCO) toward Orion-KL, carried out with the Submillimeter Array. We find that the spatial distribution of the formaldehyde emission systematically differs from that of methanol: while methanol is found toward the inner part of the region, HDCO is found in colder gas that wraps around the methanol emission on four sides. The HDCO/H_2CO ratios are determined to be 0.003–0.009 within the region, up to an order of magnitude higher than the D/H measured for methanol. These findings strengthen the previously suggested hypothesis that there are differences in the chemical pathways leading to HDCO (via deuterated gas-phase chemistry) and deuterated methanol (through conversion of formaldehyde into methanol on the surface of icy grain mantles)
[en] Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0.''2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species—in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH3OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.
[en] Past investigations have shown that the current type-approval test cycles are not representative for real-world vehicle usage. Consequently, the emissions and fuel consumption of the vehicles are underestimated. Therefore, a new cycle is being developed in the UNECE framework (World-harmonised Light-duty Test Procedure, WLTP), aiming at a more dynamic and worldwide harmonised test cycle. To provide recommendations for the new cycle, we have analysed the noxious emission results of a test programme of seven vehicles on the test cycles NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) and CADC (Common Artemis Driving Cycles). This paper presents the results of that analysis to show the zones of the cycle that are causing the highest emissions, using two different approaches. Both approaches show that the zones with the highest emissions of modern vehicles differ from vehicle to vehicle. Consequently, a representative test cycle has to contain as many combinations of vehicle speed and acceleration that occur in real-world traffic as possible to prevent that a vehicle does not perform well for certain combinations because they are not included in the test cycle. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates that it is important to include a cold start to ensure rapid warm up of the catalysts. - Highlights: ► Vehicle emissions on the NEDC and CADC type-approval cycles are analysed. ► The zones within the cycles that produce the highest emissions are investigated. ► It is shown that these zones can differ significantly from one vehicle to another. ► The WLTP cycle should contain as many of the real-world driving zones as possible.