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[en] Which contribution can the increase of energy efficiency achieve in the industry energy for the energy transition in Germany? To answer this question a model-based analysis of existing energy efficiency potentials of the energy-intensive industries is performed, which account for about 70% of the total energy demand of the industry. Based on this industry for each sector are instruments proposed for the implementation of the calculated potential and to overcome the existing barriers.
[de]Welchen Beitrag kann die Steigerung der Energieeffizienz in der Industrie zur Energiewende in Deutschland leisten? Um diese Frage zu beantworten wird fuer die energieintensiven Branchen, welche insgesamt etwa 70 % des Energiebedarfs der Industrie ausmachen, eine modellgestuetzte Analyse der vorhandenen Energieeffizienzpotenziale durchgefuehrt. Aufbauend hierauf werden je Branche Instrumente zur Umsetzung der berechneten Potenziale und zur Ueberwindung der bestehenden Hemmnisse vorgeschlagen.
[en] Turkey’s energy demand has been growing by 4.5% per year over the last decade. As a reaction to this, the Turkish government has implemented the Strategic Energy Efficiency Plan (SEEP), which provides a guideline for energy efficiency policies in all sectors. The aim of this study is to analyse the potential of the SEEP on final energy demand in the Turkish residential sector until 2030. Three scenarios are developed based on a detailed bottom-up modelling approach using a vintage stock model to simulate the energy demand of heating systems and appliances. The results show a decreasing final energy demand in the reference scenario from about 944 PJ in 2008 to 843 PJ in 2030. This reflects a structural break, which is mainly caused by a high building demolition rate and low efficiency in the existing building stock. The SEEP achieves additional savings of around 111 PJ until 2030, while a scenario with even higher efficiency shows further savings of 91 PJ. Electricity demand increases in all scenarios – mainly due to growing ownership rates of appliances. The SEEP will achieve around 10 TWh of electricity savings in 2030 compared to the reference scenario, mainly through more ambitious end-use standards
[en] This document presents the final report of the project ''Efficiency and effectiveness of the EU ETS - extended analyses (EU-ETS 6)''. The project aims to deliver further contributions for the evaluation of the efficiency and effectiveness of the European Emission Trading System (ETS). In doing so, the project provides advice to the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA), as implementing authority, and the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) as the competent ministry, on methodological aspects of ex-post assessments and lessons learned for ex-ante analyses. The project builds on a previous study, titled ''Evaluierung und Weiterentwicklung des EU-Emissionshandels (EU-ETS- 5)''. The current project focusses on methodological approaches for an ex-post assessment of the effects of the EU ETS and introduces different ''Tier'' levels reflecting different scopes of complexity. The core of each analysis is to compare estimated abatement costs under the EU-ETS with cost estimates for a fictitious ''alternative policy scenario'' that aims to achieve the same total abatement but does not provide the flexibility of trading allowances. Case studies are conducted based on marginal abatement cost curves derived from a partial equilibrium model and from bottom-up models for the industry and the electricity sector respectively. Besides the different modelling approaches, the case studies differ essentially in the design and assumptions chosen with respect to the i) counterfactual scenarios, ii) alternative policy scenario, iii) sector detail, iv) abatement costs and CO2-prices and v) temporal perspective. An efficiency analysis of the ETS always implies a trade-off between breadth and depths of the analysis. Yet, the case study analyses all reveal efficiency gains for the ETS compared to an alternative policy. For example, the Tier 2 analysis -covering a medium level of detail - investigated different sector disaggregation and different time frames for the 2nd trading period and concluded that 15% to 50% of abatement costs were saved within the ETS compared to the alternative policy scenario. Emissions trading thus leads to important efficiency gains according to these estimates.
[en] The cement industry is the second most energy-intensive sector in Taiwan, which underlines the need to understand its potential for energy efficiency improvement. A bottom-up model-based assessment is utilized to conduct a scenario analysis of energy saving opportunities up to the year 2035. The analysis is supported by detailed expert interviews in all cement plants of Taiwan. The simulation results reveal that by 2035, eighteen energy efficient technologies could result in 25% savings for electricity and 9% savings for fuels under the technical diffusion scenario. This potential totally amounts to about 5000 TJ/year, of which 91% can be implemented cost-effectively assuming a discount rate of 10%. Policy makers should support a fast diffusion of these technologies. Additionally, policy makers can tap further saving potentials. First, by decreasing the clinker share, which is currently regulated to a minimum of 95%. Second, by extending the prohibition to build new cement plants by allowing for replacement of existing capacity with new innovative plants in the coming years. Third, by supporting the use of alternative fuels, which is currently still a niche in Taiwan. - Highlights: •We analyze energy efficiency improvement potentials in Taiwan's cement industry. •Eighteen process-specific technologies are analyzed using a bottom-up model. •Our model systematically reflects the diffusion of technologies over time. •We find energy-saving potentials of 25% for electricity and 9% for fuels in 2035. •91% of the energy-saving potentials can be realized cost-effectively.
[en] The diffusion of cost-effective energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) in firms is often surprisingly slow. This phenomenon is usually attributed to a variety of barriers which have been the focus of numerous studies over the last two decades. However, many studies treat EEMs homogenously and assume they have few inherent differences apart from their profitability. We argue that complementing such analyses by considering the characteristics of EEMs in a structured manner can enhance the understanding of EEM adoption. For this purpose, we suggest a classification scheme for EEMs in industry which aims to provide a better understanding of their adoption by industrial firms and to assist in selecting and designing energy-efficiency policies. The suggested classification scheme is derived from the literature on the adoption of EEMs and the related fields including the diffusion of innovations, eco-innovations and advanced manufacturing technology. Our proposed scheme includes 12 characteristics based on the relative advantage, the technical and the information context of the EEM. Applying this classification scheme to six example EEMs demonstrates that it can help to systematically explain why certain EEMs diffuse faster than others. Furthermore, it provides a basis for identifying policies able to increase the rate of adoption. - Highlights: ► The characteristics of energy-efficiency measures critically affect their adoption. ► We propose a classification for energy-efficiency measures in industry. ► It allows to draw conclusions on the adoption likelihood and intensity of barriers. ► As such it provides a basis for policy design and technology analysis.
[en] We analyze the change of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China's cement industry and its driving factors over the period 1990–2009 by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) method. It is based on the typical production process for clinker manufacturing and differentiates among four determining factors: cement output, clinker share, process structure and specific energy consumption per kiln type. The results show that the growth of cement output is the most important factor driving energy consumption up, while clinker share decline, structural shifts mainly drive energy consumption down (similar for CO2 emissions). These efficiency improvements result from a number of policies which are transforming the entire cement industry towards international best practice including shutting down many older plants and raising the efficiency standards of cement plants. Still, the efficiency gains cannot compensate for the huge increase in cement production resulting from economic growth particularly in the infrastructure and construction sectors. Finally, scenario analysis shows that applying best available technology would result in an additional energy saving potential of 26% and a CO2 mitigation potential of 33% compared to 2009. - Highlights: ► We analyze the energy consumption and CO2 emissions in China's cement industry. ► The growth of cement output is the most important driving factor. ► The efficiency policies and industrial standards significantly narrowed the gap. ► Efficiency gains cannot compensate for the huge increase in cement production. ► The potentials of energy-saving of 26% and CO2 mitigation of 33% exist based on BAT.
[en] This paper empirically investigates factors driving the adoption of energy-efficiency measures by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Our analyses are based on cross-sectional data from SMEs which participated in a German energy audit program between 2008 and 2010. In general, our findings appear robust to alternative model specifications and are consistent with the theoretical and still scarce empirical literature on barriers to energy-efficiency in SMEs. More specifically, high investment costs, which are captured by subjective and objective proxies, appear to impede the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, even if these measures are deemed profitable. Similarly, we find that lack of capital slows the adoption of energy-efficiency measures, primarily for larger investments. Hence, investment subsidies or soft loans (for larger investments) may help accelerating the diffusion of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. Other barriers were not found to be statistically significant. Finally, our findings provide evidence that the quality of energy audits affects the adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Hence, effective regulation should involve quality standards for energy audits, templates for audit reports or mandatory monitoring of energy audits. - Highlights: ► We empirically analyze barriers to the adoption of energy-efficiency measures in SMEs. ► We focus on firms participating in the German energy audit program for SMEs. ► The program overcomes information related barriers. ► High investment costs still impede the adoption even for profitable measures. ► Low audit quality also impedes the adoption of profitable measures.
[en] Paper production is an energy-intensive process and accounted for about 9% of industrial energy demand in Germany in 2008. There have only been slow improvements in energy efficiency in the paper industry over the past twenty years. Policies can accelerate the progress made, but knowledge about the remaining efficiency potentials and their costs is a prerequisite for their success. We assess 17 process technologies to improve energy efficiency in the German pulp and paper industry up to 2035 using a techno-economic approach. These result in a saving potential of 34 TJ/a for fuels and 12 TJ/a for electricity, which equal 21% and 16% of fuel and electricity demand, respectively. The energy savings can be translated into mitigated CO2 emissions of 3 Mt. The larger part of this potential is found to be cost-effective from a firm's perspective. The most influential technologies are heat recovery in paper mills and the use of innovative paper drying technologies. In conclusion, significant saving potentials are still available, but are limited if we assume that current paper production processes will not change radically. Further savings would be available if the system boundaries of this study were extended to e.g. include cross-cutting technologies. -- Highlights: ► We analyze energy efficiency potentials in the German paper industry. ► 17 specific process technologies are analyzed using a bottom-up approach. ► We find energy saving potential of 21% for fuels and 16% for electricity by 2035. ► The resulting annual CO2 mitigation amounts to about 3 Mt CO2-eq. ► The larger part of this potential is cost-effective from a firm perspective.