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[en] An experimental study of heat transfer characteristics of steam in a square channel (simulating a gas turbine blade cooling passage) with two opposite surfaces roughened by 60 deg parallel ribs was performed. The ranges of key governing parameters were: Reynolds numbers (Re) based on the channel hydraulic diameter (30000-140000), entry gauge pressure (0.2Mpa-0.5Mpa), heat flux of heat transfer surface area (5kWm-2-20kWm-2), and steam superheat (13 .deg. C-51 .deg. C). The test channel length was 1000mm, while the rib spacing (p/e) was 10, and the ratio of rib height (e) to hydraulic diameter (D) was 0.048. The test channel was heated by passing current through stainless steel walls instrumented with thermocouples. The local heat transfer coefficients on the ribbed wall from the channel entrance to the fully developed regions were measured. The semi-empirical correlation was fitted out by using the average Nusselt numbers in the fully developed region to cover the range of Reynolds number. The correlation can be used in the design of new generation of gas turbine blade cooled by steam
[en] The investigation on heat flux can clarify the thermal condition and explain temperature behavior on the main radiators of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS). In this paper, a detailed investigation of heat flux on the AMS main radiators is proposed. The heat transfer process of the AMS main radiators is theoretically analyzed. An updated thermal model of the AMS on the International Space Station (ISS) is developed to calculate the external heat flux density on the AMS main radiators. We conclude the ISS components and operations affect on the solar flux density of the AMS main radiators by reflecting or shading solar illumination. According to the energy conservation on the AMS main radiators, the temperature variation mainly depends on the solar flux change. The investigations are conducive to reference for the long-duration thermal control of the AMS, and knowledge for the thermal conditions on the ISS.
[en] This work presents a numerical and experimental investigation on the heat transfer and turbulent flow of cooling steam in a rectangular duct with 90 .deg. ribs and studies the effect of cooling conditions on the heat transfer augmentation of steam. In the calculation, the variation range of Reynolds is from 10,000 to 190,000, the inlet temperature varies from 300 .deg. C to 500 .deg. C and the outlet pressure is from 0.5MPa to 6MPa. The aforementioned wide ranges of flow parameters cover the actual operating condition of coolant used in the gas turbine blades. The computations are carried with four turbulence models (the standard k-ε, the renormalized group (RNG) k-ε, the Launder-Reece-Rodi (LRR) and the Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski (SSG) turbulence models). The comparison of numerical and experimental results reveals that the SSG turbulence model is suitable for steam flow in the ribbed duct. Therefore, adopting the conjugate calculation technique, further study on the steam heat transfer and flow characteristics is performed with SSG turbulence model. The results show that the variation of cooling condition strongly impacts the forced convection heat transfer of steam in the ribbed duct. The cooling supply condition of a relative low temperature and medium pressure could bring a considerable advantage on steam thermal enhancement. In addition, comparing the heat transfer level between steam flow and air flow, the performance advantage of using steam is also influenced by the cooling supply condition. Changing Reynolds number has little effect on the performance superiority of steam cooling. Increasing pressure would strengthen the advantage, but increasing temperature gives an opposite result.
[en] We report a novel conjugation of N-terminal cysteines (NCys) that proceeds with fast kinetics and exquisite selectivity, thereby enabling facile modification of NCys-bearing proteins in complex biological milieu. This new NCys conjugation proceeds via a thiazolidine boronate (TzB) intermediate that results from fast (k: ≈5000 m s) and reversible conjugation of NCys with 2-formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA). We designed a FPBA derivative that upon TzB formation elicits intramolecular acyl transfer to give N-acyl thiazolidines. In contrast to the quick hydrolysis of TzB, the N-acylated thiazolidines exhibit robust stability under physiologic conditions. The utility of the TzB-mediated NCys conjugation is demonstrated by rapid and non-disruptive labeling of two enzymes. Furthermore, applying this chemistry to bacteriophage allows facile chemical modification of phage libraries, which greatly expands the chemical space amenable to phage display. (© 2020 Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
[en] Multivariate time series is widely used to evaluate and predict the health state of system. To focus on the importance of prediction accuracy for multivariate time series, many a research have been done on improving the performance of predictive model. However, for multivariate time series, the prediction accuracy depends not only on predictive model but also on the input information. In this paper, we combine data fusion with ESN to improve the prediction accuracy of multivariate time series, which focuses on both the processing of the input information of predictive model and the optimizing of predictive model. First, multi-sources data fusion is presented to obtain the new input for prediction model before predicting; phase space reconstruction and self-adaptive weighted fusion algorithm are adopted to fuse multivariate time series and obtain more complete information. Then, leaky rectifier liner units are used to replace the original activation function, tanh, and locality preserving projection is employed to optimize the state matrix of the reservoir. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an analysis of one case study of real compressor groups data sets in chemical production system. The results and a comparison with the traditional method show that the proposed method can greatly enhance the prediction accuracy of multivariate time series and the one-step ahead prediction accuracy is improved by three orders of magnitude as well as a better generalization ability is obtained in the multi-steps ahead prediction.
[en] Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.
[en] In the camera–projector measurement system, calibration is a key to the measurement accuracy; especially, it is more difficult to obtain the same calibration accuracy for projector than camera due to the inaccurate corresponding relationship between its calibration points and imaging points. Thus, based on stereo vision measurement models of the camera and the projector, a calibration method with direct linear transformation (DLT) and bundle adjustment (BA) is introduced to adjust the corresponding relationships for better optimization purpose in this paper, which minimize the effect of inaccurate calibration points. And an integral method is presented to improve the precision of projection patterns to compensate the projector resolution limitation. Moreover impacts of system parameter and calibration points errors are evaluated when the calibration points positions change, which not only provides theoretical guidance for the rational layout of the calibration points, but also can be used for the optimization of system structure. Finally, the calibration of the system is carried out and the experiment results show that better precision can be achieved with those processes. (paper)
[en] Color-coding methods have significantly improved the measurement efficiency of structured light systems. However, some problems, such as color crosstalk and chromatic aberration, decrease the measurement accuracy of the system. A two-level space-time color-coding method is thus proposed in this paper. The method, which includes a space-code level and a time-code level, is shown to be reliable and efficient. The influence of chromatic aberration is completely mitigated when using this method. Additionally, a self-adaptive windowed Fourier transform is used to eliminate all color crosstalk components. Theoretical analyses and experiments have shown that the proposed coding method solves the problems of color crosstalk and chromatic aberration effectively. Additionally, the method guarantees high measurement accuracy which is very close to the measurement accuracy using monochromatic coded patterns. (paper)
[en] Objective: To study the radiation-induced changes of carcinoma lesion and non-tumor tissues and organs of pelvis in patients with cervical cancer on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging during and after radiation therapy (RT). Methods: Pelvic MR imaging was performed in 48 patients with cervical carcinoma before, during, and after radiation therapy. The size and signal changes of carcinoma lesions and pelvic soft tissues and bone marrow were observed on MR images. Results: (1) During RT, tumor volume showed no changes in 4 patients, shrinkage in 42 patients, and disappearance in 2 patients. 'No enhanced area' in carcinoma lesion was observed in 15 patients on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Tumor complete response to radiation therapy showed hypointense signal on T2WI and SPIRMR image and slight or no enhancement on Gd-DTPA T1WI. (2) Abnormality was detected in multiple tissues and organs on MR imaging after RT. (3) Radiation-induced bone marrow signal changes were detected as early as 8 days after the initiation of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) when the radiation dose reached 12 Gy. Acute changes of bone marrow could be demonstrated as increased signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and SPIR images, and enhanced SI on contrasted T1-weighted images. During the chronic phase of RT, SI of bone marrow showed steady and marked increase on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images, and decrease on SPIR sequence in some patients, and no enhanced SI on contrasted T1-weighted images. Conclusion: MR imaging is helpful in the evaluation of cervical carcinoma response to radiation therapy, and can detect radiation-induced changes of soft tissue and bone marrow of pelvis during and after RT. (authors)
[en] Highlights: • A shaft cooling structure is designed based on loop thermosyphons. • A single loop thermosyphon is studied during heating and cooling of the same tube. • The optimal liquid filling ratio is obtained under the special condition. • Cooling effects of the cooling structure are simulated on the motorized spindle. - Abstract: In this paper, a shaft cooling structure of a grinding motorized spindle was designed based on loop thermosyphons. The evaporation and condensation sections of the loop thermosyphons were located on the same tube due to the thermal conductivity of the shaft. The experimental studies on both heat transfer performance and start-up characteristics of a single loop thermosyphon were performed under the special condition. Then, the cooling effect on the shaft was simulated depending on the obtained experimental data. Results demonstrated that the optimal liquid filling rate of a loop thermosyphon ranged between 50 and 60% under the special condition. Furthermore, a critical value of heating power between 20 W and 40 W was found. When the heating power exceeded this value, the temperature of the evaporation section increased rapidly without any fluctuation. The violent fluctuation of temperature at the upper evaporation section could be utilized as an indicator for the heat transfer limit. Finally, according to the simulation, the maximum temperature of the motorized spindle was reduced by approximately 28% under the effect of the designed cooling structure.