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[en] Drug accessibility to the tumor cells is an important area of concern with an anticipation of increasing the efficacy of the drug to be delivered to a specific site. The biogenesis of gold nanoparticles using plant-mediated phytochemical extracts and their possible linkage to cancer antibodies with an aim at delivering the conjugate specifically to the tumor-associated antigen is the basic objective of the research. Radiolabeling of antibodies with gold nanoparticles was carried out by a protocol, and the labeling extent of antibodies was compared with that of a radiogold solution to ordinary particulate size (AuNO-Ab). The amount of radiolabeling was estimated by subjecting the reaction mixtures to thin layer chromatography (ITLC-Silica-gel) in different solvent mediums, both by visual inspection of images of the Siemens Orbitor Gamma Camera ZLC-7500 and also by in vitro counting of the radioactive counts in different quarters of the chromatographic strips. Biodistribution relating to the deposition of injected dose in nontargeting sites (reticuloendothelial system [RES]-localization) was studied and efforts were made for reducing the same. Much improved gold incorporation was confirmed at various molar ratios of gold to immunoglobulin (antibody) using nanogold solution (>85%). The RES uptake in the liver, spleen etc., was observed as a problem and the prior administration of unlabeled nonspecific gammaglobulin (before the actual radiolabeled product) was identified as the suitable blocking agent for this purpose. The study signifies the potential for PEGylated gold nanoparticles of a precise size range, suitable to use as a delivery vehicle for targeting small biomolecules (antibody etc.) to the tumor site. The stability of this labeled immunoconjugate and other toxicity effects under physiological conditions needs further evaluation. If successful, this could be a role model for attaining high tumor/nontumor ratio.
[en] Current echocardiographic data reporting the impact of concomitant mitral regurgitation (MR) on outcome in patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are conflicting. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, this study aimed to assess the impact of MR severity on cardiac reverse remodeling and patient outcome. 85 patients undergoing TAVR with CMR pre- and 6 m post-TAVR were evaluated. The CMR protocol included cines for left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes, flow assessment, and myocardial scar assessment by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Patients were dichotomised according to CMR severity of MR fraction at baseline (‘non-significant’ vs ‘significant’) and followed up for a median duration of 3 years. Forty-two (49%) patients had ‘significant MR’ at baseline; they had similar LV and RV size and function compared to the ‘non-significant MR’ group but had greater LV mass at baseline. In those with significant MR at baseline, 77% (n = 32) had a reduction in MR post-TAVR, moving them into the ‘non-significant’ category at 6-months, with an overall reduction in MR fraction from 34 to 17% (p < 0.001). Improvement in MR was not associated with more favourable cardiac reverse remodeling when compared with the ‘non-improvers’. Significant MR at baseline was not associated with increased mortality at follow-up. Significant MR is common in patients undergoing TAVR and improves in the majority post-procedure. Improvement in MR was not associated with more favourable LV reverse remodeling and baseline MR severity was not associated with mortality.