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[en] This year the Croatian Energy Society is organizing its 14. Forum. For this occasion we chose the topic Energy perspectives today and tomorrow, World-Europe-Croatia, which in recent years is increasingly in the focus of interest not only of energy experts but of broad public as well. Namely, the end of the 20. and beginning of the 21st century saw the changes that, in many ways, influenced the energy market development. Views on the future and energy supply stability as they were in the era of divisions (free and communist world, developed and undeveloped world) must be substantially and urgently changed, because the geopolitical landscape of the world has been changing as well as development dynamics of countries and parts of continents. For Europe (Croatia included), which has deficit of primary energy sources and depends on energy import, reliability, availability security and economy of imported energy are key assumptions of sustainable economic and ecological development. The Forum shall discuss the following issues, which strongly influence or will influence the energy perspectives in the next 50 years: Reserves and potentials (size, geo-allocation of resources, transport possibilities, renewable sources); Technologies (exploitation, production, transport, distribution, consumption: appliances, consumers, and processes); Economic development and energy demand (development levels, richness and poverty, price of energy and social influence, energy efficiency); Environmental protection (Kyoto Protocol, legislation, economic capacities, nuclear energy); Energy trade liberalization (market development, restructuring, common legislation, privatization); Security of supply (local, European and global level); Population growth; Political changes and conflicts, military conflicts, terrorism. World Energy Council (WEC) initiated work on global study on energy development: Energy Scenario to 2050. The energy community around the world is equally interested in this study. The discussions to take place during this Forum will contribute to understanding of the problems and to search of possible solutions.(author)
[en] The 16th Forum discussed the following topics: possible scenarios of development of political, economic and energy relations; technological development in the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and scientific, technological, organisational and economic challenges; climate change and greenhouse gases emission reduction; objectives, possibilities and effects; reform of energy sector in the context of institutional, legislative, organisational, and ownership needs and changes in the EU, country members of the Energy Community, Russia and other countries; relations EU - Russia; politics, interests and possible solutions; supranational energy projects; problems and possible solutions
[en] Energy perspectives are in the focus of the whole energy community. Facing te growing needs for energy, limits to reserves, terrorist of war threats, and climate changes is the main driver in searching for long-term solutions which would make energy development less uncertain and less risky. Technological development is one of the answers to energy problems, but it is not the only one. Enhancing energy efficiency is a social challenge that goes beyond technology problem. Equally, accepting locations for construction of energy facilities is also a social challenge, because, together with other social challenges, may give am answer how to develop stable energy industry. Energy security is synergy of various factors: energy market, infrastructure which facilitates good connectivity, diversification of resources, enhanced use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency, and it is important to stress that the only secure energy systems are well-balanced ones. World Energy Council initiated the global study Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050 with the aim to overview the future energy at global and regional levels
[en] The process of opening up the energy market has been proceeding at an accelerating pace; legislative and institutional prerequisites have come into existence for a transparent and nondiscriminatory approach to energy systems (networks), and for an easy market access to suppliers by granting customers the right of supplier choice. National borders - once an obstacle to energy market development - are thus eliminated. Advantages of this sort of development strategy for energy markets include top-quality competition and market de-monopolization, which in turn, as a rule, imply a more favorable position for the users of energy system services, for energy buyers / purchasers, and for consumers. However, the coexistence of internal (national) and international competitions raises the issue of the framework and contents of long-term planning, as well as of the liability of states and government institutions for the adequacy, security, and stability of energy sources, and consequently for customer supply security
[en] The theme of the 12. Forum: Energy Day in Croatia is energy sector liberalisation and the new position of the consumers, changing rapidly and acquiring a completely new perspective. By means of market opening of various energy forms the consumer gains right to choose the energy supplier, quite a radical change in relation to the former, monopolistic relationship. This means that the consumer becomes the centre of attention, as has already been achieved at the mobile phone market. Within new market environment, the consumer becomes product buyer, buyer of the product in principle bearing market characteristics as any other product. However, energy markets reveal numerous peculiarities, distinguishing them from the markets of goods and services, as we have known them for centuries, which function according to well-known market conditions. While part of the energy sector will permanently remain a natural monopoly (transmission / transportation and distribution networks), the opening of the considered market requires information science development, which means it is necessary to apply advanced technology for e.g. measuring devices, etc. In view of such market circumstances it is essential to define the quality of the product including supply stability, voltage quality or agility in responding to customer complaints. On the other hand, these factors cannot be adjusted to each individual consumer-buyer at the moment or at least not ones. The position of the customers-buyers has been solved differently in various countries. The aim of this Forum is to put forward and explain experience and solutions connected to the new customer-buyer role in market circumstances. It is our wish that the participants discuss problems connected to the consumer-buyer position under the following aspects: Present status of market opening for various energy forms in the countries of the EU and in the transition countries; technical preconditions for energy market opening such as information technology systems, measuring device technology, etc; supply quality, related sub-law acts, financial and numerical indices in various countries; rights to supplier choice; issues related to the connection of new consumers to the grid; consumer protection, role of Energy Regulation Council; benchmarking in the function of customer protection. (author)
[en] The paper analyzes the Winter Package of the European Commission in the content of the novelties it brings, as well as the disadvantages of the concept and the problems of implementation. The changes made by the Winter Package are strategically significant because they link two policies, climate and energy into a unique climate-energy policy. This is an important breakthrough, but cannot be said for all the measures to really lead to that goal. Some critical issues of realizing a unique climate-energy policy are analyzed and appropriate solutions are suggested. (author).
[en] The article analyses a growing need for the planning within the power sector to follow market condition an considers the relations occurring on three different planning levels: the global, the national and the local. The conclusions of the article is that market development doesn't decrease the need for planning: on contrary, planning activities will play an increasingly important role, and new solutions and substances will have to be found within the dynamic power sector changes and the relationship to environment protection. (author)
[en] The paper discusses the problem of energy efficiency as a significant societal problem which cannot be resolved by relying solely on technical and technological solutions. The opinion that it is necessary to create adequate legal, financial, economic organisational and institutional measures for a stronger increase in energy efficiency in Croatia is exposed. (author)
[en] The paper analyzes the processes that can be expected to take place in the Croatian energy sector until 2050 in the conditions of significant reductions of CO2 and other greenhouses gases emissions. It also shows the main factors influencing energy consumption; limitations in energy sector development deriving from climate changes and environment preservation; technological development and its impact on the energy sector development; potentials of available resources and energy infrastructure for energy transport/transmission and energy import, as well as the security and quality of supply. The paper highlights significant changes in the energy sector, necessity of developing new economic policies which would be based on enhancing energy efficiency and use of low CO2 and GHG technologies or use of those technologies which contribute to substantial reduction of the emissions.(author).
[en] The paper analyses the past period of about the 10 years from the point of view of strategic considerations, documents drawn up and everything that has been accomplished. This was the period of intensive reforms of the energy sector in the Eu, but also in all other European countries, in particular in the candidate states. The mentioned period is marked by political and economic reforms and intensive economic growth of highly populated countries especially in Asia and dramatic changes in the established geo-balance of energy production and consumption. Among the developments that loom large on energy sector it is important to mention growing terrorism, war in Iraq and Middle East. The analyses carried out in this paper show that the set goals should not be changed because they became universal for all countries which organize their energy sectors based on the open market concept and responsible energy management. Problems are evident in implementation of strategic choices and therefore the emphasis is put on further implementation efforts. The analysis of other factors influencing the energy sector indicate the enhancing international cooperation, ranging from scientific researches to joint energy projects, and for Croatia it translates as a need for stronger integration in all processes and projects on the continent. (author)