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[en] To better understand the spatial dynamics of non-point source (NPS) phosphorus loading with soil property at watershed scale, integrated modeling and soil chemistry is crucial to ensure that the indicator is functioning properly and expressing the spatial interaction at two depths. Developments in distributed modeling have greatly enriched the availability of geospatial data analysis and assess the NPS pollution loading response to soil property over larger area. The 1.5 km-grid soil sampling at two depths was analyzed with eight parameters, which provided detailed spatial and vertical soil data under four main types of landuses. The impacts of landuse conversion and agricultural practice on soil property were firstly identified. Except for the slightly bigger total of potassium (TK) and cadmium (Cr), the other six parameters had larger content in 20–40 cm surface than the top 20 cm surface. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was employed to simulate the loading of NPS phosphorus. Overlaying with the landuse distribution, it was found that the NPS phosphorus mainly comes from the subbasins dominated with upland and paddy rice. The linear correlations of eight soil parameters at two depths with NPS phosphorus loading in the subbasins of upland and paddy rice were compared, respectively. The correlations of available phosphorus (AP), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and TK varied in two depths, and also can assess the loading. The soil with lower soil organic carbon (SOC) presented a significant higher risk for NPS phosphorus loading, especially in agricultural area. The Principal Component Analysis showed that the TP and zinc (Zn) in top soil and copper (Cu) and Cr in subsurface can work as indicators. The analysis suggested that the application of soil property indicators is useful for assessing NPS phosphorus loss, which is promising for water safety in agricultural area. -- Highlights: ► Spatial dynamics of NPS phosphorus pollution with soil property at watershed scale are analyzed. ► Impacts of agricultural practice on soil property at spatial and vertical are identified. ► Eight soil parameters at two depths observe different patterns with NPS phosphorus loading. ► Watershed soil copper and cadmium in subsurface are useful indicators.
[en] Lake Qinghai in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau is the largest lake in China. This study firstly reported the geochemistry of Cd in the lake. Water samples were collected from Lake Qinghai (n = 69) and Buha River (n = 12), while sediment (n = 22) and topsoil (n = 45) samples were collected from the lake and around the lake area, respectively. In addition, pore water samples (n = 20) were separated from sediment samples. Water samples were analyzed for pH, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, S, and Cd, while sediment and topsoil samples were analyzed for K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, S, Sc, and Cd. The average concentration of Cd was 0.014 μg L−1 in the water of Lake Qinghai and 0.007 μg L−1 in the water of Buha River. However, the average concentration of Cd was 0.320 μg L−1 in the sediment pore water, much higher than that in the lake water and river water. Cadmium concentration in the lake water might be mainly controlled by salinity, while it in the pore water might be mainly controlled by carbonate minerals. Cadmium concentration in the river water might be controlled by alkalinity and pH. The average concentration of Cd in the sediment was 0.284 mg kg−1. The enrichment of Cd in the lake sediment was significantly higher than that in the topsoil around the lake. Anthropogenic atmospheric deposition of Cd did not led to the increase in dissolved Cd level in the lake water, but led to its enrichment in the lake sediment.
[en] In order to study element accumulation and trophic transfer in the food web, sixteen benthic invertebrate species and nine fish species were collected from the Daliao River estuary for analysis of toxic elements and nitrogen stable isotope in the muscle tissue. The concentrations ranged between 1.44–17.98, 0.01–9.30, 0.17–36.15, 0.7–145.4, 0.01–0.33, 0.14–14.88, 0.10–2.51, 0.02–0.14, and 19.3–221.1 mg kg−1 for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, respectively. As, Cd, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher in the benthic invertebrates than in fish, whereas Hg and Sb were significantly lower. In addition, the benthic invertebrates were characterized by the highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cd, whereas the fish were characterized by the highest BAF for Hg. A significant decrease in Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni levels, and a significant increase in Hg and Sb levels were observed with increasing trophic levels. - Highlights: • Toxic elements and trophic level were determined in biota from Daliao River estuary. • Benthic invertebrates had higher As, Cd, Cu, Zn and lower Hg and Sb levels than fish. • Benthic invertebrates accumulated high As levels, while fish accumulated high Hg levels. • Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni levels decreased, and Hg and Sb levels increased with trophic levels.