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[en] Until recently, network science has focused on the properties of single isolated networks that do not interact or depend on other networks. However it has now been recognized that many real-networks, such as power grids, transportation systems, and communication infrastructures interact and depend on other networks. Here, we will present a review of the framework developed in recent years for studying the vulnerability and recovery of networks composed of interdependent networks. In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This is also the case when some nodes, like for example certain people, play a role in two networks, i.e. in a multiplex. Dependency relations may act recursively and can lead to cascades of failures concluding in sudden fragmentation of the system. We review the analytical solutions for the critical threshold and the giant component of a network of n interdependent networks. The general theory and behavior of interdependent networks has many novel features that are not present in classical network theory. Interdependent networks embedded in space are significantly more vulnerable compared to non-embedded networks. In particular, small localized attacks may lead to cascading failures and catastrophic consequences. Finally, when recovery of components is possible, global spontaneous recovery of the networks and hysteresis phenomena occur. The theory developed for this process points to an optimal repairing strategy for a network of networks. Understanding realistic effects present in networks of networks is required in order to move towards determining system vulnerability.
[en] Many multiplex networks are embedded in space, with links more likely to exist between nearby nodes than distant nodes. For example, interdependent infrastructure networks can be represented as multiplex networks, where each layer has links among nearby nodes. Here, we model the effect of spatiality on the robustness of a multiplex network embedded in 2-dimensional space, where links in each layer are of variable but constrained length. Based on empirical measurements of real-world networks, we adopt exponentially distributed link lengths with characteristic length ζ. By changing ζ, we modulate the strength of the spatial embedding. When ζ → ∞, all link lengths are equally likely, and the spatiality does not affect the topology. However, when only short links are allowed, and the topology is overwhelmingly determined by the spatial embedding. We find that, though longer links strengthen a single-layer network, they make a multi-layer network more vulnerable. We further find that when ζ is longer than a certain critical value, , abrupt, discontinuous transitions take place, while for the transition is continuous, indicating that the risk of abrupt collapse can be eliminated if the typical link length is shorter than . (letter)
[en] We present a generalized method for calculating the k-shell structure of weighted networks. The method takes into account both the weight and the degree of a network, in such a way that in the absence of weights we resume the shell structure obtained by the classic k-shell decomposition. In the presence of weights, we show that the method is able to partition the network in a more refined way, without the need of any arbitrary threshold on the weight values. Furthermore, by simulating spreading processes using the susceptible-infectious-recovered model in four different weighted real-world networks, we show that the weighted k-shell decomposition method ranks the nodes more accurately, by placing nodes with higher spreading potential into shells closer to the core. In addition, we demonstrate our new method on a real economic network and show that the core calculated using the weighted k-shell method is more meaningful from an economic perspective when compared with the unweighted one. (paper)
[en] We study the statistics of the recurrence times τ between earthquakes above a certain magnitude M in six (one global and five regional) earthquake catalogs. We find that the distribution of the recurrence times strongly depends on the previous recurrence time τ0, such that small and large recurrence times tend to cluster in time. This dependence on the past is reflected in both the conditional mean recurrence time and the conditional mean residual time until the next earthquake, which increase monotonically with τ0. As a consequence, the risk of encountering the next event within a certain time span after the last event depends significantly on the past, an effect that has to be taken into account in any effective earthquake prognosis
[en] We study the energy-landscape network of Lennard-Jones clusters as a model of a glass forming system. We find the stable basins and the first-order saddles connecting them, and identify them with the network nodes and links, respectively. We analyze the network properties and model the system's evolution. Using the model, we explore the system's response to varying cooling rates, and reproduce many of the glass transition properties. We also find that the static network structure gives rise to a critical temperature where a percolation transition breaks down the space of configurations into disconnected components. Finally, we discuss the possibility of studying the system mathematically with a trap model generalized to networks
[en] Studies of resilience of interdependent networks have focused on structural dependencies between pairs of nodes across networks but have not included the effects of dynamic processes taking place on the networks. Here we study the effect of dynamic process-based dependencies on a system of interdependent resistor networks. We describe a new class of dependency in which a node’s functionality is determined by whether or not it is actually carrying current and not just by its structural connectivity to a spanning component. This criterion determines its functionality within its own network as well as its ability to provide support-but not electrical current-to nodes in another network. We present the effects of this new type of dependency on the critical properties of σ and , the overall conductivity of the system and the fraction of nodes which carry current, respectively. Because the conductance of current has direct physical effects (e.g. heat, magnetic induction), the development of a theory of process-based dependency can lead to innovative technology. As an example, we describe how the theory presented here could be used to develop a new kind of highly sensitive thermal or gas sensor. (paper)
[en] We explore the concepts of self-similarity, dimensionality, and (multi)scaling in a new family of recursive scale-free nets that yield themselves to exact analysis through renormalization techniques. All nets in this family are self-similar and some are fractals-possessing a finite fractal dimension-while others are small-world (their diameter grows logarithmically with their size) and are infinite-dimensional. We show how a useful measure of transfinite dimension may be defined and applied to the small-world nets. Concerning multiscaling, we show how first-passage time for diffusion and resistance between hubs (the most connected nodes) scale differently than for other nodes. Despite the different scalings, the Einstein relation between diffusion and conductivity holds separately for hubs and nodes. The transfinite exponents of small-world nets obey Einstein relations analogous to those in fractal nets
[en] In recent years numerous attempts to understand the human brain were undertaken from a network point of view. A network framework takes into account the relationships between the different parts of the system and enables to examine how global and complex functions might emerge from network topology. Previous work revealed that the human brain features ‘small world’ characteristics and that cortical hubs tend to interconnect among themselves. However, in order to fully understand the topological structure of hubs, and how their profile reflect the brain’s global functional organization, one needs to go beyond the properties of a specific hub and examine the various structural layers that make up the network. To address this topic further, we applied an analysis known in statistical physics and network theory as k-shell decomposition analysis. The analysis was applied on a human cortical network, derived from MRI/DSI data of six participants. Such analysis enables us to portray a detailed account of cortical connectivity focusing on different neighborhoods of inter-connected layers across the cortex. Our findings reveal that the human cortex is highly connected and efficient, and unlike the internet network contains no isolated nodes. The cortical network is comprised of a nucleus alongside shells of increasing connectivity that formed one connected giant component, revealing the human brain’s global functional organization. All these components were further categorized into three hierarchies in accordance with their connectivity profile, with each hierarchy reflecting different functional roles. Such a model may explain an efficient flow of information from the lowest hierarchy to the highest one, with each step enabling increased data integration. At the top, the highest hierarchy (the nucleus) serves as a global interconnected collective and demonstrates high correlation with consciousness related regions, suggesting that the nucleus might serve as a platform for consciousness to emerge. (paper)
[en] We study the behavior of U.S. markets both before and after U.S. Federal Open Market Commission meetings and show that the announcement of a U.S. Federal Reserve rate change causes a financial shock, where the dynamics after the announcement is described by an analog of the Omori earthquake law. We quantify the rate n(t) of aftershocks following an interest-rate change at time T and find power-law decay which scales as n(t-T)∼(t-T)-Ω, with Ω positive. Surprisingly, we find that the same law describes the rate n'(|t-T|) of 'preshocks' before the interest-rate change at time T. This study quantitatively relates the size of the market response to the news which caused the shock and uncovers the presence of quantifiable preshocks. We demonstrate that the news associated with interest-rate change is responsible for causing both the anticipation before the announcement and the surprise after the announcement. We estimate the magnitude of financial news using the relative difference between the U.S. Treasury Bill and the Federal Funds effective rate. Our results are consistent with the 'sign effect', in which 'bad news' has a larger impact than 'good news'. Furthermore, we observe significant volatility aftershocks, confirming a 'market under-reaction' that lasts at least one trading day.
[en] Many real systems such as, roads, shipping routes, and infrastructure systems can be modeled based on spatially embedded networks. The inter-links between two distant spatial networks, such as those formed by transcontinental airline flights, play a crucial role in optimizing communication and transportation over such long distances. Still, little is known about how inter-links affect the structural resilience of such systems. Here, we develop a framework to study the structural resilience of interlinked spatially embedded networks based on percolation theory. We find that the inter-links can be regarded as an external field near the percolation phase transition, analogous to a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic–paramagnetic spin system. By defining the analogous critical exponents δ and γ, we find that their values for various inter-links structures follow Widom’s scaling relations. Furthermore, we study the optimal robustness of our model and compare it with the analysis of real-world networks. The framework presented here not only facilitates the understanding of phase transitions with external fields in complex networks but also provides insight into optimizing real-world infrastructure networks. (paper)