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[en] The structural analysis of glycoproteins is a challenging endeavor and is under steadily increasing demand, but only a very limited number of labs have the expertise required to accomplish this task. This tutorial is aimed at researchers from the fields of molecular biology and biochemistry that have discovered that glycoproteins are important in their biological research and are looking for the tools to elucidate their structure. It provides brief descriptions of the major and most common analytical techniques used in glycomics and glycoproteomics analysis, including explanations of the rationales for individual steps and references to published literature containing the experimental details necessary to carry out the analyses. Glycomics includes the comprehensive study of the structure and function of the glycans expressed in a given cell or organism along with identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases. Glycoproteomics which is subset of both glycomics and proteomics is the identification and characterization of proteins bearing carbohydrates as posttranslational modification. This tutorial is designed to ease entry into the glycomics and glycoproteomics field for those without prior carbohydrate analysis experience.
[en] The release of active molecules or the control of nosocomial infections for improved osteoinduction is ideally addressed by a bone substitute material. For this purpose, the feasibility of a mild one-pot process is probed for incorporating directly active proteins and antibiotics in a hydroxyapatite (HAp) based scaffold. The effect of two serum model proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (FIB), on the microstructure, on selected mechanical properties as well as on degradation behaviour and on protein release are investigated. By protein incorporation, the porosity can be adjusted between 54 and 70% especially due to the foaming ability of BSA. The addition of 5 wt% FIB doubles the biaxial flexural strength up to 6 MPa in comparison to samples without proteins (3 MPa). Protein release experiments show that a rapid release takes place within the first days (between around 3% for FIB and 38% for BSA). As a possible application for osteomyelitis treatment, vancomycin and gentamicin were subsequently added instead of proteins to study their release behaviour and their antibacterial activity, respectively. A controlled antibiotic release was observed for a period of 18 d. By varying the protein type, mixture and quantity, the mechanical strength porosity as well as the protein release and calcium solubility can be controlled. Our studies underpin the suitability of this mild one-pot process as a promising simple-to-use platform for controlled local drug release and bone treatment. (paper)
[en] Enhanced coating stability and adhesion are essential for long-term success of orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, the effect of coating composition on mechanical, physico-chemical and biological properties of coated zirconia specimens is investigated. Zirconia discs and dental screw implants are coated using the wet powder spraying (WPS) technique. The coatings are obtained by mixing yttria-stabilized zirconia (TZ) and hydroxyapatite (HA) in various ratios while a pure HA coating served as reference material. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical profilometer analysis confirm a similar coating morphology and roughness for all studied coatings, whereas the coating stability can be tailored with composition and is probed by insertion and dissections experiments in bovine bone with coated zirconia screw implants. An increasing content of calcium phosphate (CP) resulted in a decrease of mechanical and chemical stability, while the bioactivity increased in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro experiments with human osteoblast cells (HOB) revealed that the cells grew well on all samples but are affected by dissolution behavior of the studied coatings. This work demonstrates the overall good mechanical strength, the excellent interfacial bonding and the bioactivity potential of coatings with higher TZ contents, which provide a highly interesting coating for dental implants. - Highlights: • Different ratios of zirconia (TZ) and calcium phosphate (CP) were deposited on zirconia substrates. • Enhancement of TZ content in mixed coatings increased coating stability. • Enhancement of CP content in mixed coatings increased bioactivity. • All tested coating compositions were non-toxic
[en] Highlights: • Cellulose allomorphs were prepared and carefully characterized. • Measurements by oxygen bomb calorimetry, solution calorimetry, and by PPMS. • Thermodynamic properties for interconversion reactions of the cellulose allomorphs. • Review of the earlier literature with recalculation of property values. • Standard thermodynamic formation properties. - Abstract: The thermochemistry of samples of amorphous cellulose, cellulose I, cellulose II, and cellulose III was studied by using oxygen bomb calorimetry, solution calorimetry in which the solvent was cadoxen (a cadmium ethylenediamine solvent), and with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS) in zero magnetic field to measure standard massic heat capacities Cp,w∘ over the temperature range T = (2 to 302) K. The samples used in this study were prepared so as to have different values of crystallinity indexes CI and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, by Karl Fischer moisture determination, and by using gel permeation chromatography to determine the weight average degree of polymerization DPw. NMR measurements on solutions containing the samples dissolved in cadoxen were also performed in an attempt to resolve the issue of the equivalency or non-equivalency of the nuclei in the different forms of cellulose that were dissolved in cadoxen. While large differences in the NMR spectra for the various cellulose samples in cadoxen were not observed, one cannot be absolutely certain that these cellulose samples are chemically equivalent in cadoxen. Equations were derived which allow one to adjust measured property values of cellulose samples having a mass fraction of water wH2O to a reference value of the mass fraction of water wref. The measured thermodynamic properties (standard massic enthalpy of combustion ΔcHw∘, standard massic enthalpy of solution ΔsolHw∘, and Cp,w∘) were used in conjunction with the measured CI values to calculate values of the changes in the standard massic enthalpies of reactionΔrHw∘∗, the standard massic entropies of reaction ΔrSw∘∗, the standard massic Gibbs free energies of reaction ΔrGw∘∗, and the standard massic heat capacity ΔrCp,w∘, for the interconversion reactions of the pure (CI = 100) cellulose allomorphs, i.e., cellulose(am), cellulose I(cr), cellulose II(cr), and cellulose II(cr), at the temperature T = 298.15 K, the pressure p∘ = 0.1 MPa, and wH2O = 0.073. The “∗” denotes that the thermodynamic property pertains to pure cellulose allomorphs. Values of standard massic enthalpy differences Δ0THw∘, standard massic entropy differences Δ0TSw∘, and the standard massic thermal function Φw∘=Δ0TSw∘-Δ0THw∘/T were calculated from the measured heat capacities for the cellulose samples and for the pure cellulose allomorphs. The extensive literature pertinent to the thermodynamic properties of cellulose has been summarized and, in many cases, property values have been calculated or recalculated from previously reported data. The thermodynamic property data show that cellulose(am) is the least stable of the cellulose allomorphs considered in this study. However, due to the uncertainties in the measured property values, it is not possible to use these values to order the relative stabilities of the cellulose (I, II, and III) crystalline allomorphs with a reasonable degree of certainty. Nevertheless, based on chemical reactivity information, the qualitative order of stability for these three allomorphs is cellulose III(cr) > cellulose II(cr) > cellulose Iβ(cr) at T = 298.15 K. However, as evidenced by the fact that cellulose I(cr) can be reformed by the application of heat and water to a sample of cellulose III(cr), the differences in the stabilities of these three allomorphs appear to be small and may be temperature dependent. Standard thermodynamic formation properties as well as property values for the conversion reactions of the cellulose allomorphs to α-D-glucose(cr) have been calculated on the assumption that Sw∘→0 as T→0. The values for the standard massic Gibbs free energy of reaction ΔrGw∘ for the conversion of the cellulose allomorphs to α-D-glucose(cr), with the exception of anhydrous cellulose(am), all have positive values and thus are thermodynamically not favored for mass fractions of water wH2O < 0.073