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[en] The US TEAM-UP programme is operated by the US Department of Energy and the solar and electric power industries with the aim of increasing utilization of photovoltaics (PVs). The article discusses the project's achievements. In eight years, the partnership has assisted in the installation of more than 1,000 PV systems in the USA and is opening-up large sustainable markets for solar energy. The economics of installation, and how this has changed are discussed. How TEAM-UP has dealt with the perceived views of potential customers for solar energy is mentioned
[en] The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) is a nonprofit association of over 100 energy service providers (electric utilities and energy service companies) cooperating to develop photovoltaic power as a thriving commercial energy option for the benefit of its members and their customers. The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and UPVG are sponsoring an initiative named TEAM-UP that has co-funded 37 business ventures since 1995 that are resulting in more than 2,500 PV installations, totaling more than 7.5 megawatts of power in 30 states. The TEAM-UP1 ventures are significantly leveraging the federal funds. Under TEAM-UP, venture teams are investing four dollars for every dollar invested by the U. S. taxpayer. The UPVG programs are increasing the experience of electric utilities and their customers with photovoltaics and are stimulating growth in the demand for solar power. This paper describes these efforts and outlines the current status of the TEAM-UP program. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
[en] Urinary symptoms and urodynamic studies were evaluated prospectively in 33 women undergoing radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Patients were evaluated during treatment, after one to two months, and after five to six months. Significant reductions in peak urinary flow, volume at first desire to void, cystometric capacity, and bladder compliance were evident during and immediately after therapy. Bladder symptoms and urodynamic alteration did not correlate with age, race, or stage of disease. Bladder compliance was significantly reduced in those patients receiving more than 3000 rads to the entire bladder from external beam irradiation
[en] TEAM-UP is a partnership program of the US electric utility industry and the US Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP; (1) Grid-Independent Applications (GIA) -- an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications, and (2) Grid-Connected Applications -- an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of surveys, public review workshops, and notices that are part of the TEAM-UP process
[en] The authors initiated the development of a diagnostic tool for evaluating the reliability of low pressure steam turbine blades. Designated BLADE (Blade Life Algorithm for Design Evaluation), the program is developed specifically for use by utility engineers to assess and correct blade failures - providing details on stresses, natural frequencies and blade life which traditionally are proprietary to the turbine blade manufacturers. Developed as a stand alone, finite element based program, BLADE requires no previous expertise in modeling or analysis of blade designs. The user is prompted to provide basic blade and root dimensions, including any applicable cover and tiewire information. The program then utilizes this information to automatically generate a complete finite element model of the blade or blade group configuration, and calculate static and dynamic stresses in the airfoil, root, tenon and cover sections of the blade. Natural frequency and mode shapes are also calculated and available to the user. To assist the utility engineer interpret this information, the static and dynamic stress components are combined with the high and low cycle material properties using the BLADE-FATIGUE program to predict the time to fatigue crack initiation, using the local strain approach
BackgroundRemoval of internal mammary chain sentinel nodes (IMCSNs) affects prognosis and treatment of breast cancer, and internal mammary chain radiotherapy (IMCRT) can improve survival for selected patients. This study aimed to determine the effect of IMCSN biopsy on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) and to identify predictive factors for IMCSN and distant metastasis.
MethodsPatients with IMCSNs were selected from a prospective database for the period 1999–2007. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed after intratumoral technetium-99 m injection, and all sentinel nodes were removed. Both RFS and OS were calculated for subgroups with tumor-positive, tumor-negative, or non-removed IMCSNs. Predictive factors were identified for tumor-positive IMCSNs and distant metastasis by regression analysis.
ResultsFor 287 (85%) of 336 patients, IMCSN biopsy was performed, and metastasis was detected in 38 patients (13%). The patients with tumor-positive IMCSNs had poorer OS than the patients with no IMCSN metastasis or non-removed IMCSNs (p = 0.002). These patients also had worse RFS due to distant metastasis (p = 0.002). Axillary metastasis was predictive for tumor-positive IMCSNs (positive predictive value, 38.5%). The predictive factors for distant metastasis were tumor-positive IMCSNs (hazard ratio [HR], 2.5), non-removed IMCSNs (HR, 2.3), tumor diameter greater than 1.5 cm (HR, 3.5), and age older than 65 years (HR, 3.1; reference, < 50 years).
ConclusionsPatients with IMCSNs have worse survival due to distant metastasis. The clinically relevant predictive factor for distant metastasis is tumor larger than 1.5 cm. According to the authors’ current protocol, IMCSN biopsy is performed for patients younger than 70 years who have a tumor larger than 1.5 cm, with the cardiotoxicity of the adjuvant IMCRT weighed against the survival benefit.