Results 1 - 3 of 3
Results 1 - 3 of 3. Search took: 0.014 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Intensive forestry will delay recovery of severely damaged catchment areas. - The geochemical model MAGIC was applied to estimate streamwater and soil chemistry between 1851 and 2030 at the Lysina catchment, an acid-sensitive granitic catchment covered by planted Norway spruce monoculture in the western Czech Republic. The total deposition of sulfur to the catchment was 164 meq m-2 in 1991, but had declined to 52 meq m-2 by 2000. Although SO2 emissions in the region declined by 90% compared to the 1980s, acidification recovery was small within the period 1990-2000. Stream pH increased only slightly (from 3.92 to 4.07), although SO4 concentration declined sharply from 568 μeq l-1 (1990) to 232 μeq l-1 (2000). Organic acids played an important role in streamwater buffering. According to the MAGIC prediction using deposition measured in 1999-2000, streamwater pH will increase to 4.3 and soil base saturation will increase to 6.2% by 2030 (from 5.7% in 2002). Pre-industrial pH was estimated to be 5.5 and soil base saturation 24.7%. The loss of base cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) was caused predominantly by atmospheric acidity, but intensive forestry was responsible for approximately one third of the net base cation loss via accumulation in harvested biomass. Severely damaged sites, under continued pressure from forestry, will not return to a good environmental status in the near future (if ever) when the acid deposition input is only partially reduced
[en] The concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), a common proxy for dissolved organic matter (DOM), was measured at seven drinking-water reservoirs and four streams between 1969 and 2006. Nine of them showed significant DOM increases (median COD change +0.08 mg L-1 yr-1). Several potential drivers of these trends were considered, including air temperature, rainfall, land-use and water sulfate concentration. Temperature and precipitation influenced inter-annual variations, but not long-term trends. The long-term DOM increase was significantly associated with declines of acidic deposition, especially sulfur deposition. Surface water sulfate concentrations decreased from a median of 62 mg L-1-27 mg L-1 since 1980. The magnitude of DOM increase was positively correlated with average DOM concentration (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001). Simultaneously, DOM concentration was positively correlated with the proportion of Histosols within the catchments (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.001). A focus on the direct removal of DOM by water treatment procedures rather than catchment remediation is needed. - Rising DOM levels in surface waters are due to changes in soil chemistry caused by a reduction of acidic deposition.
[en] The WHAM-FTOX model quantifies the combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards aquatic organisms through the toxicity function (FTOX), a linear combination of the products of organism-bound cation and a toxic potency coefficient for each cation. We describe the application of the model to predict an observable ecological field variable, species richness of pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton, studied with respect to either acidification or the impacts of metals from smelters. The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H+ < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni. In general, observed species richness is lower than predicted, but in some instances agreement is close, and is rarely higher than predictions. The model predicts recovery in agreement with observations for three regions, namely Sudbury (Canada), Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) and a subset of lakes across Norway, but fails to predict observed recovery from acidification in Adirondack lakes (USA). -- Highlights: • We used the model WHAM-FTOX to relate combined toxic effects of protons and metal cations towards lake crustacean zooplankton. • The fitted results give toxic potencies increasing in the order H+ < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni. • Due to non-toxicity factors, observed species richness is mostly either close to or lower than the toxicity-predicted value. -- The WHAM-FTOX model has been applied to field data for pelagic lake crustacean zooplankton. The fitted results give metal toxic potencies increasing in the order H+ < Al < Cu < Zn < Ni