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[en] While only about ten solar plants of more than 5 MW have been connected to the grid in the whole Sub-Saharan Africa, with four for Senegal, Africa remains far behind the development of solar plants, even though solar arrays and batteries are cheaper, this study aims at understanding the reasons for this failure in the development of solar energy in this continent. It first proposes an overview of the situation of solar energy in Africa (a rare and expensive electricity in most countries, a high potential but a still very low development, existing initiatives). The second part identifies and discusses the prerequisites for the development of solar projects financed by the private sector: actors present on the solar plant market in Africa, an adapted, pre-required and indispensable political and regulatory framework. The last part proposes explanations for the current delay: financing challenges, development aid policies which introduce distortions on the market, and limitations of the tendering mechanism.
[en] After a synthesis of the 4. quarter 2020 news and a focus on the implementation of the French solar energy development plan 'PlaceAuSoleil', this publication presents in a series of graphs the situation of photovoltaic energy development in France and in the whole world: evolution of the world's photovoltaic park (new and cumulated capacities), world comparison of production costs of new power generation capacities, photovoltaic power generation in France (photovoltaic share in the French power consumption, new connected capacities per surface size and for self-consumption, evolution of connected capacities rate, self-consumption market trend, residential market analysis and feed-in tariffs per surface size, pending projects, evolution of feed-in tariffs in continental France, extra public burdens induced by new connections with respect to surface size.
[en] The author first describes the French situation regarding energy with the still prevailing role of fossil energies in energy consumption, the decrease of energy consumption since the 2000's, and a deficit energy bill despite a surplus electric power production. Then, he discusses four priority stakes for the French energy policy: heating (which is now a high carbon emitter), transports (role of taxing and electrification to improve the sector), the electric power market (many dysfunctions must be corrected), and nuclear (the fleet is getting closer to the end of its theoretical lifetime). He shows that the energy policy must be articulated with a climate policy centred on carbon taxing