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[en] We construct a minimal circuit, based on the top-transmon design, to rotate a qubit formed out of four Majorana zero-modes at the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator. Unlike braiding operations, generic rotations have no topological protection, but they do allow for a full characterization of the coherence times of the Majorana qubit. The rotation is controlled by variation of the flux through a pair of split Josephson junctions in a Cooper pair box, without any need to adjust gate voltages. The Rabi oscillations of the Majorana qubit can be monitored via oscillations in the resonance frequency of the microwave cavity that encloses the Cooper pair box. (topical article)
[en] Three-dimensional topological semimetals can support band crossings along one-dimensional curves in the momentum space (nodal lines or Dirac lines) protected by structural symmetries and topology. We consider rhombohedrally (ABC) stacked honeycomb lattices supporting Dirac lines protected by time-reversal, inversion and spin rotation symmetries. For typical band structure parameters there exists a pair of nodal lines in the momentum space extending through the whole Brillouin zone in the stacking direction. We show that these Dirac lines are topologically distinct from the usual Dirac lines which form closed loops inside the Brillouin zone. In particular, an energy gap can be opened only by first merging the Dirac lines going through the Brillouin zone in a pairwise manner so that they turn into closed loops inside the Brillouin zone, and then by shrinking these loops into points. We show that this kind of topological phase transition can occur in rhombohedrally stacked honeycomb lattices by tuning the ratio of the tunneling amplitudes in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the layers. We also discuss the properties of the surface states in the different phases of the model.
[en] Generation of direct current in a semiconductor superlattice under the action of an ac bichromatic field is considered in the most general case of an arbitrary ratio of the frequencies of the fields being mixed. It is shown that this effect is of parametric origin associated with oscillations of the electron effective mass in the miniband of the superlattice.
[en] A technique is developed which allows for the detailed mapping of the electronic wave function in two-dimensional electron gases with low-temperature mobilities up to . Thin (‘delta’) layers of aluminium are placed into the regions where the electrons reside. This causes electron scattering which depends very locally on the amplitude of the electron wave function at the position of the Al δ-layer. By changing the distance of this layer from the interface we map the shape of the wave function perpendicular to the interface. Despite having a profound effect on the electron mobiliy, the δ-layers do not cause a widening of the quantum Hall plateaus. (paper)