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[en] A study has been conducted to survey the most suitable steel as the temperature monitor being used for the radiation damage experiments in nuclear reactors and to develope the new technique to estimate the temperature more accurately. Eighteen kinds of steels have been aged at temperatures from 375 to 7000C for various periods of time (10 -- 3,000 hrs), and a hardness has been measured by a Vickers hardness tester. It has been concluded that JIS SUJ2 (ASTM52100) is the most suitable one as the temperature monitor. It could give a wider available temperature range (375 -- 7000C) and a more accurate estimated temperature (confidence interval <= 260C) than the conventional Templugs (BS EN52, BS1407). It has been shown that a micro-Vickers hardness tester (1 kgf) weight) can be used as the substitute for a Vickers hardness tester. (author)
[en] The linear stability of a current sheet that is subject to an impulsive acceleration due to shock passage with the effect of a guide magnetic field is studied. We find that a current sheet embedded in relativistically magnetized plasma always shows a Richtmyer-Meshkov-type instability, while the stability depends on the density structure in the Newtonian limit. The growth of the instability is expected to generate turbulence around the current sheet, which can induce the so-called turbulent reconnection, the rate of which is essentially free from plasma resistivity. Thus, the instability can be applied as a triggering mechanism for rapid magnetic energy release in a variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena such as pulsar wind nebulae, gamma-ray bursts, and active galactic nuclei, where the shock wave is thought to play a crucial role.
[en] The two-fixed-centres problem describes the motion of a particle influenced by the gravitational pull of two fixed particles. This is a well-known integrable Hamiltonian system having three constants of motion. This paper presents a discrete two-dimensional two-fixed-centres problem which conserves two of these constants of motion. Moreover, this discrete system preserves the discrete analogue of the third constant of motion. A canonical transformation is introduced to separate the variables and remove singularities of the system. A combination of this transformation and energy-preserving method plays an important role in deriving the discrete system with a variable time step
[en] It has been suggested by radio observations of polarized synchrotron emissions that downstream magnetic fields in some young supernova remnants (SNRs) are oriented radially. We study the magnetic field distribution of turbulent SNRs driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI)—in other words, the effect of rippled shock—by using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations. We find that the induced turbulence has radially biased anisotropic velocity dispersion that leads to a selective amplification of the radial component of the magnetic field. The RMI is induced by the interaction between the shock and upstream density fluctuations. Future high-resolution polarization observations can distinguish the following candidates responsible for the upstream density fluctuations: (1) inhomogeneity caused by the cascade of large-scale turbulence in the interstellar medium, the so-called big power-law in the sky; (2) structures generated by the Drury instability in the cosmic-ray modified shock; and (3) fluctuations induced by the nonlinear feedback of the cosmic-ray streaming instability
[en] We present a new numerical method of special relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics with scalar resistivity that can treat a range of phenomena, from non-relativistic to relativistic (shock, contact discontinuity, and Alfven wave). The present scheme calculates the numerical flux of fluid by using an approximate Riemann solver and electromagnetic field by using the method of characteristics. Since this scheme uses appropriate characteristic velocities, it is capable of accurately solving problems that cannot be approximated as ideal magnetohydrodynamics and whose characteristic velocity is much lower than the velocity of light. The numerical results show that our scheme can solve the above problems as well as nearly ideal MHD problems. Our new scheme is particularly well suited to systems with initially weak magnetic field and mixed phenomena of relativistic and non-relativistic velocity, for example magnetorotational instability in an accretion disk and super Alfvenic turbulence.
[en] We performed one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with detailed cooling, heating, and chemical processes to examine the thermal stability of shocked gas in cold neutral medium (CNM) and molecular clouds. We find that both CNM and molecular clouds can be thermally unstable in the cooling layer behind the shock wave. The characteristic wavelength of the thermal instability ranges from 10–5 pc to 0.1 pc in the CNM, and from 10–7 pc to 0.1 pc in the molecular clouds. This coincides with the size of observed tiny scale structures in the CNM and molecular clouds, indicating that the thermal instability in the shocked gas could be a formation mechanism of these tiny structures in the interstellar medium. We have also calculated the e-folding number of the thermal instability to estimate the amplification of the density fluctuation in the shocked gas. Density perturbations in the CNM grow by a factor of exp (5) ≅ 150, whereas the perturbations in the molecular clouds grow only by a factor of a few behind a high Mach number shock. The amplification factor is larger at lower densities and higher velocities. Formation of very small scale structures by thermal instability in shocked gas is more effective in lower densities
[en] Formation of interstellar clouds as a consequence of thermal instability is studied using two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider the situation of converging, supersonic flows of warm neutral medium in the interstellar medium that generate a shocked slab of thermally unstable gas in which clouds form. We find, as speculated in Paper I, that in the shocked slab magnetic pressure dominates thermal pressure and the thermal instability grows in the isochorically cooling, thermally unstable slab that leads to the formation of H I clouds whose number density is typically n ∼< 100 cm-3, even if the angle between magnetic field and converging flows is small. We also find that even if there is a large dispersion of magnetic field, evolution of the shocked slab is essentially determined by the angle between the mean magnetic field and converging flows. Thus, the direct formation of molecular clouds by piling up warm neutral medium does not seem to be a typical molecular cloud formation process, unless the direction of supersonic converging flows is biased to the orientation of mean magnetic field by some mechanism. However, when the angle is small, the H I shell generated as a result of converging flows is massive and possibly evolves into molecular clouds, provided gas in the massive H I shell is piled up again along the magnetic field line. We expect that another subsequent shock wave can again pile up the gas of the massive shell and produce a larger cloud. We thus emphasize the importance of multiple episodes of converging flows, as a typical formation process of molecular clouds.
[en] Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of young protostellar objects detected warm SO emission, which could be associated with a forming protostellar disk. In order to investigate if such warm gas can be produced by accretion shock onto the forming disk, we calculate the sputtering and thermal desorption of various grain-surface species in one-dimensional shock waves. We find that thermal desorption is much more efficient than the sputtering in the post-shock region. While H2O can be thermally desorbed, if the accretion velocity is larger than 8 km s–1 with the pre-shock gas number density of 109 cm–3, SO is desorbed if the accretion velocity ≳2 km s–1 and ≳4 km s–1, with the pre-shock density of 109 cm–3 and 108 cm–3, respectively. We also find that the column density of hydrogen nuclei in warm post-shock gas is N warm ∼ 1021 cm–2
[en] Recent observations of molecular clouds around rich massive star clusters including NGC 3603, Westerlund 2, and M20 revealed that the formation of massive stars could be triggered by a cloud-cloud collision. By using three-dimensional, isothermal, magnetohydrodynamics simulations with the effect of self-gravity, we demonstrate that massive, gravitationally unstable, molecular cloud cores are formed behind the strong shock waves induced by cloud-cloud collision. We find that the massive molecular cloud cores have large effective Jeans mass owing to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength by shock compression and turbulence in the compressed layer. Our results predict that massive molecular cloud cores formed by the cloud-cloud collision are filamentary and threaded by magnetic fields perpendicular to the filament