Results 1 - 8 of 8
Results 1 - 8 of 8. Search took: 0.017 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] There is a refined and complicated regulatory network between immune cells, and between immune cells and secretory factors. The immune system is kept in a homeostasis and equilibrium by positive activation and negative inhibition. In recent years, the mechanisms of immunosuppression in depth for successful allograft transplantation were studied, and many immunosuppressants and immunosuppressive drugs have been developed for clinical use. Most of them are targeting T cell receptors and three kinds of singnal pathways. The receptors of the immunosuppression were either found highly expressed in immune cells after irradiation. To relieve the suppression by regulating the receptors could help the immune reconstruction out of radiation damage. Many new immunoenhancers have been discovered to improve the immune system function for radiation by Toll-like receptors. The search for new immunoenhancers and agents for relieving immunosuppression is of great importance to immune construction for radiation sickness. (authors)
[en] Objective: To investigate the dynamic changes of transcription profiles of mouse thymus gene expression in different times after 6 Gy γ-irradiation. Methods: High-flux cDNA microarray technique was used irradiation, the numbers and types of differentially expressed genes were gradually decreased, for instance, the induced differential expression genes were involved in cell cycle, immunity and stress, apoptosis, signal transduction, transcription regulation, DNA synthesis and recombination, cystoskeleton, ion channel and transportation, metabolism, protein translation and synthesis, development and cell differentiation, etc. correlated cell cycle (3 up-regulating: Cyclin G, Anxal, Fgf1 and 2 down-regulating: Cdc2a, Cdc25b), 5 genes correlated immune stress (4 up-regulating: IL-18, Casp1, IL-15, IL-7 and 1 down-regulating: Cd28), 7 genes correlated apoptosis (4 up-regulating: Caspl, Anxal, Perp, IL-7 and 3 down-regulating: Pten, Api5 and Fas). Conclusions: After 6 Gy irradiation, differentially expressed genes in mouse thymus is not only involved in many targets, levels and pathways, but also displayed an obvious difference in times. This reveals the regular pattern of differential expression genes in the process of injury and reconstitution in moderate dose irradiated mouse thymus. (authors)
[en] By using TdT-mediate dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical method of alkaline phosphatase, the authors observed the apoptotic dynamic changes of mouse lymph node lymphocyte after lethal dose γ-ray irradiation, and its relationship to the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins and bax, bcl-2 mRNAs. The results showed that 24h after irradiation, apoptotic index of lymph node lymphocytes increased swiftly, with a positive correlation to the doses within 6-12 Gy, whereas no relationship was observed for 15 Gy and 20 Gy irradiation groups. Twenty-four hours after 6 Gy irradiation, the lymphocytes apoptosis reached a maximal level and decreased thereafter. However, up to 6 to 12 months after the 6 Gy irradiation, the apoptotic index was still higher than the control group. Twenty-four hours after the irradiation, the expression of lymphocyte bax protein enhanced immediately, with the 12 Gy group being highest value, whereas such a dose-effect was not found for the 15 Gy and 20 Gy groups. While the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins decreased evidently 24h after the irradiation, the analysis on bax and bcl-2 mRNA showed also a similar tendency. It was suggested that apoptosis was an important way of lymphocyte death pathways after ≤12 Gy irradiation. The up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL indicate that they play an important role in the apoptotic regulation of lymphocytes induced by lethal dose radiation. (authors)
[en] Facing with the increasing contradiction of economic growth, energy scarcity and environmental deterioration, energy conservation and emissions abatement have been ambitious targets for the Chinese government. Improving energy efficiency through technological advancement is a primary measure to achieve these targets. However, the existence of energy rebound effects may completely or partially offset energy savings associated with technological advancement. This paper adopted a modified input-output model to estimate the economy-wide energy rebound effects across China's economic sectors with the consideration of energy subsidies. The empirical results show that the aggregate rebound effect of China is about 1.9% in 2007–2010, thus technological advancement significantly restrains energy consumption increasing. Removing energy subsidies will cause the aggregate rebound effect declines to 1.53%. Specifically, removing subsidies for coal and nature gas can reduce the rebound effects signifcantly, while removing the subsidies for oil products has a small impact on rebound effect. The existence of rebound effects implies that technological advancement should be cooperated with energy price reform so as to achieve the energy saving target. In addition, the government should consider the diversity of economic sectors and energy types when design the reform schedule. - Highlights: • Rebound effects with the consideration of energy subsidies are estimated in China. • When considering the interactions among sectors, the aggregate rebound effect become small. • Removing subsidies will reduce energy consumption, thereby declining the rebound effects. • Removing subsidies for different energy types has varies effects on rebound effect.
[en] Electricity is the guarantee of normal life, and the electricity price is widely concerned. As a developing country in the transition stage, abundant policy implications are included in the electricity price in China, thus, whether to adjust the resident electricity price is a dilemma for the government. However, the current single tariff system cannot cope with the complex social and environmental problems. A new price mechanism is indeed needed. This paper tries to design an increasing block tariffs system with the consideration of residential income and electricity consumption. The result indicates that the increasing block tariffs system with four-tier structure is more reasonable for China. Although the increasing block tariffs will result in the increase of electricity price, it is still acceptable and affordable. The increasing block tariffs will greatly improve the equity and efficiency, and promote the electricity saving and emissions reduction. Moreover, the power companies will increase tariffs revenue, which would use to the transmission networks investment in poor area. In order to the offset the limitations of the increasing block tariffs, the government should adopt some complementary measures. - Highlights: ► We design an increasing block tariffs for residential electricity consumption with four-tier structure. ► Both the equity and efficiency will be greatly improved. ► Electricity demand and CO2 emissions will reduce by 26.68 billion kWh and 14.11 million tons. ► Some measures should be taken as the complement to make the increasing block tariffs mechanism more efficient.
[en] In China, most energy prices are controlled by the government and are under-priced, which means energy subsidies existing. Reforming energy subsidies have important implications for sustainable development through their effects on energy price, energy use and CO2 emission. This paper applies a price-gap approach to estimate China's fossil-fuel related subsidies with the consideration of the external cost. Results indicate that the magnitude of subsidies amounted to CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008, equivalent to 4.04% of GDP of that year. Subsidies for oil products are the largest, followed by subsidies for the coal and electricity. Furthermore, an input–output model is used to analyze the impacts of energy subsidies reform on different industries and general price indexes. The findings show that removal of energy subsidies will have significant impact on energy-intensive industry, and consequently push up the general price level, yet with a small variation. Removing oil products subsidies will have the largest impact, followed by electricity, coal and natural gas. However, no matter which energy price increases, PPI is always the most affected, then GDP deflator, with CPI being the least. Corresponding compensation measures should be accordingly designed to offset the negative impact caused by energy subsidies reform. - Highlights: • China's fossil-fuel subsidies were CNY 1214.24 billion in 2008 including external cost. • Removing energy subsidies will have the largest impact on energy-intensity industry. • Removal of oil products subsidies will have the largest impact. • The effect of removing energy subsidies on general price is: PPI>GDP deflator>CPI
[en] As an effective policy instrument to reduce CO2 emissions, the effects of a carbon tax on distribution have been the critical factor in determining whether a carbon tax will be acceptable in China. Taking Shanghai as an example, which is the economic center and front-runner of China, this paper estimates the distributional effect of a carbon tax on households in various income groups by using the input–output model and the Suits index. The results indicate that the comprehensive distributional effect of the carbon tax is regressive. The expenditure of the low-income group caused by the carbon tax accounts for 0.853% of the total expenditure, while that of the high-income group 0.712%. The direct distributional effect presents a weak progressivity, while the indirect one is significantly regressive, and the latter is much larger than the former. Moreover, the Suits index of the carbon tax is −0.078, implying that the carbon tax burden on the low-income group is the highest and thus that a carbon tax can intensify income inequality. Therefore, when introducing a carbon tax, some rational associated redistribution or compensation measures, such as purposive transfer payments, should be implemented to restrict or even eliminate the regressivity of the carbon tax. - Highlights: • The direct distributional effect of carbon tax presents a weak progressivity. • The indirect distributional effect of carbon tax is significantly regressive. • The comprehensive distributional effect of carbon tax is regressive. • The Suits index of carbon tax is −0.078. • Imposing carbon tax on fossil fuels can intensify income inequality
[en] China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.