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[en] It was carried out the climatic zonification of the slope following the considerations exposed by W. Koeppen who tries to gather the climatic facts and their effects on the other phenomena of the nature. As a result they were six types of climates distributed along the region in study and determined by such factors as the thermal floors, the advection of humid masses coming from the southeast, the orographic accidents and the presence of the area of intertropical confluence
[en] The production of secondary metabolites in plant cell cultures may be of interest for obtaining compounds that are difficult to synthesize or isolate from other sources, which is usually associated with high economic value of the substances, but may also be useful to help elucidating the metabolic pathways involved in the synthesis of such compounds. This paper presents a general description of anthocyanins, a group of pigments of great importance to the industry, complemented by referring the scientific papers that have been recently published on their in vitro production. Regarding the latter, a description of the effect of changes in growing conditions, of the addition of precursors, of the use of growth regulators, and of the utilization of elicitors and stressors on the production of these compounds, is done. Finally, this review mentions the use of hairy roots obtained by the use of agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of these compounds.
[en] Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s"−"1, respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack. (papers)
[en] The 21. annual World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) reveals a world struggling to balance the desire for continued economic growth with the need to take deliberate and drastic steps against climate change. In 2018, global energy consumption rose 2.3 percent - nearly twice the average rate since 2010 - as driven by a robust worldwide economy. Despite the rapid growth of renewables in some regions, oil, gas and coal accounted for nearly three-quarters of the increase in total energy demand, their highest share in five years. As a result, greenhouse gas emissions climbed 2 percent globally, a significant break from the plateau of 2014 to 2016. While renewables remain the fastest-growing energy source worldwide, investments during the first half of 2019 declined 14 percent compared with the same period in 2018. Population growth, as well as a lack of anticipated technical breakthroughs over the next two decades, further contribute to a bleak medium- and long-term landscape. This year's WEMO report explores these issues in greater detail and presents new ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a long-term strategy that balances growth and change - and draws opportunity from crisis.