Results 1 - 6 of 6
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[en] The authors report on the fabrication of Co(OH)2-enfolded Cu2O nanocubes on reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and the use of this material in an electrochemical caffeine sensor. The rGO/Cu2O/Co(OH)2 composite was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction pattern analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A rotating disc glassy carbon electrode covered with the nanocomposite displays enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the electro-oxidation of caffeine. The peak oxidation potential is at 1.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and hence is strongly shifted to the negative side when compared to other modified electrodes. The calibration plot is linear in the 0.83 to 1200 μM concentration range, with a 0.4 μM detection limit (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The modified electrode is sensitive, selective and stable. It was successfully applied to the determination of caffeine in (spiked) caffeine-containing beverages and coffee powder and gave recoveries that ranged from 95.7 to 98.3 %. (author)
[en] We have studied the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on electrochemically fabricated graphite nanosheets (GNs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) that were deposited on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The GNs/ZnO composite was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The GOx immobilized on the modified electrode shows a well-defined redox couple at a formal potential of −0.4 V. The enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOx (compared to electrodes without ZnO or without GNs) indicates a fast electron transfer at this kind of electrode, with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of 3.75 s−1. The fast electron transfer is attributed to the high conductivity and large edge plane defects of GNs and good conductivity of ZnO-NPs. The modified electrode displays a linear response to glucose in concentrations from 0.3 to 4.5 mM, and the sensitivity is 30.07 μA mM−1 cm−2. The sensor exhibits a high selectivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and long term stability. (author)
[en] A rapid voltammetric method is described for the determination of the organophosphorus pesticide paraoxon-ethyl (PEL). A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a composite consisting of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-chitosan microgel with incorporated palladium nanoparticles. The microgel was characterized by FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, FTIR, XRD, and EIS. The modified GCE is shown to enable direct electro-reductive determination of PEL by using differential pulse voltammetry. The method works in pH 7 solution and in the 0.01 μM to 1.3 mM PEL concentration range. At a typical working potential of −0.66 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (at 50 mV/s), the detection limit is as low as 0.7 nM, and the electrochemical sensitivity is 1.60 μA μM−1 cm−2. Intriguingly, the modified GCE displays good recovery when applied to bok choy and water samples. .
[en] We describe a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with gold nanoparticles that were stabilized with calcium-crosslinked pectin (CCLP) and electrodeposited on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by cyclic voltammetry. The resulting electrode was used for the selective determination of L-cysteine (L-Cys). Its characterization showed that the CCLP acts as a scaffold to form highly stable, uniform and electrochemically active AuNPs. Electrochemical studies showed the MWCNT to significantly promote the electrodeposition of the CCLP-AuNPs. The new GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic ability towards oxidation of L-Cys in showing a lower overpotential and giving a higher oxidation peak current. The diffusion coefficient for the oxidation of L-Cys was calculated to be 3.0 × 10−6 cm2 s−1. This amperometric sensor displays a wide linear range (from 0.1 to 1,000 μM), high sensitivity (0.46 μA μM−1 cm−2) and a detection limit as low as 19 nM (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The sensor was applied to specifically detect L-Cys even in the presence of 500-fold excess of interferents. It also is stable and possesses good repeatability and reproducibity, and was successfully applied to the determination of L-Cys in spiked samples of human serum. (author)
[en] Graphical abstract: Schematic representation for green synthesis of Au-NPs and its electroreduction of nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • A green synthesis of size controlled Au-NPs from plant extract. • Trace level detection of nitro benzene, a pollutant causing Methemoglobinaemia, at Au-NPs modified electrode. • Achievement of lower LOD and wider linear response. • The proposed sensor exhibits excellent practicality in various water samples. - Abstract: The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10 min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600 μM with high sensitivity of 1.01 μA μM−1 cm−2 and low limit of detection of 0.016 μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples
[en] Highlights: • The LiFePO4/porous graphene oxide/C was prepared by a hydrothermal method and a spray dry process. • The porous graphene oxide was prepared through an activation method. • The discharge capacity of the SP-LFP/1%PGO/C is 107 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at 10C rate. • The SP-LFP/PGO/C material shows promising candidate for high-power Li-ion battery in EV. - Abstract: A 3D spray-dried micro/mesoporous LiFePO4/porous graphene oxide/C (denoted as SP-LFP/PGO/C) composite material is synthesized via a three-step process, i.e., hydrothermal process, carbon coating, and spray dry method in sequence. The 2D porous graphene oxide (denoted as PGO) material is first prepared through an activation method. The galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements of LFP composites without graphene oxide, with 1 wt% graphene oxide, and 1 wt% PGO are conducted in the potential range of 2–3.8 V at various rates (0.1–10C). It is revealed that the SP-LFP/PGO/C material shows the best performance among three samples. The discharge capacities of the SP-LFP/PGO/C composites are observed to 160, 152, 151, 149, 144, 139, 127 mAh g−1 at 0.1C, 0.2C, 0.5C, 1C, 3C, 5C and 10C rate. In particular, the discharge capacity of the SP-LFP/PGO/C composite with 1 wt% PGO is 107 mAh g−1 after 1000 cycles at a 10C rate, and its capacity retention is ca. 97%. It is due to the unique structural and geometrical feature of SP-LFP/PGO/C composite, there the diamond-like (rhombus) LFP nanoparticles are embedded in porous GO matrix which forming a porous three-dimensional network for fast electronic and ionic transport channels.