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[en] The author observed the thyroid 13'1I uptake rate using an intradermal injection method. The amount of activity remaining at the site of intradermal injection of 0.1 ml. of 5μCi. of 131I in physiologic saline was measured in 79 cases of hyperthyroidism and in 24 cases of hypothyroidism. The cases had been confirmed by clinical and laboratory findings, at the department of medicine, (radioisotope clinic) Pusan National University Hospital. Twenty-nine normal control cases were examined currently by the same technique during the period from Jan. 1967 to June 1970. The following results were obtained: l. In the normal group, the ranges and mean values of the thyroid uptake 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 minutes after intradermal 131I injection, were 0-10%(6.33±1.63), 0-15%(7.83±2.12), 0-15%(8.46±2. 82), 5.1-20%(9.66± 2.27), 5.1-25%(10.47±2.52), 5.1-30%(13.03±4.42). 2. In the hyperthyroid group, the ranges and mean values of the thyroid uptake 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 minutes after intradermal 131I injection were 5.1-45%(22.25±7.04), 10.1-50%(28.32±6. 67), 15.1-55%(34. 78±11. 63), 15.1-65%(37.95±7.72), 20.1-65%(41.49±10.05) and 20.1-80%(48.71±12.51). 3. In the hypothyroid group, the ranges of thyroid 131I uptake by intradermal 131I injection at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 60 minutes lay between 0 and 10%, and the the mean values were 4.23±l.76, 5.08±1.68, 5.56±1.70, 6.02±l.75, 6.37±1.91 and 6.95±2.07. 4. In conclusion, thyroid function test using an intradermal injection method in cases of hyperthyroidism, showed characteristic values which seemed to be of diagnostic significance.
[en] The author observed the uptake rate 131I by the thyroid gland and disappearing rate of the 131I at the size of the intradermal injection of 0.1 ml of 5 mCi of 131I in normal physiologic saline on 20 patients with hyperthyroidism and on 15 patients with hypothyroidism who visited the Radioisotope department of the Pusan National University Hospital during the period from January 1967 to Aug. 1968 and during the same period 15 normal persons were examined by the same methods and found. The results were as follows: (1) The disappearance of rate of 131I at the injected site was highest in the cases of hyperthyroidism. The next highest results were obtained in the normal cases. The lowest results were obtained in the cases of hypothyroidism. (2) The uptake rate of thyroid gland after intradermal injection of the 131I was highest in the cases of hyperthyroidism and the next highest results were obtained in the cases of normal findings. The lowest results were obtained in the cases of hypothyroidism. (3) In conclusion, the intradermal method of injecting 131I by the author is a useful way of testing the function of the thyroid gland.
[en] To elucidate alteration of peripheral T cell subsets in thyroid tumors, the author enumerated T cell subsets in peripheral blood by indirect immunofluorescent method, using monoclonal antibodies (CD3, CD4 and CD8) in 17 cases of thyroid cancer, 12 cases of thyroid adenoma, and 16 cases of adult healthy subjects as controls. Diagnoses were confirmed histopathologically in thyroid cancer and adenoma, and were established on the basis of commonly accepted clinical and biochemical criteria in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The blood was drawn from veins of (he patients and control subjects in Pusan National University Hospital during the period of January to October 1990. The results obtained were summarized as follow: 1) The percentage of CD3+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with healthy subjects. 2) The percentage of CD4+ cells was not different among thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, hashimoto's thyroiditis and control subjects each other. 3) The percentage of CD8+ cells was significantly decreased in thyroid cancer as compared with adult healthy subjects, and tended to be decreased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. 4) The CD/CDH ratio was significantly increased in thyroid cancer as compared with control subjects, and tended to be increased as compared with thyroid adenoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. On the basis of (the results, it can be suggested that the immunodysfunction may be due to decreased suppressor/cytotoxic T cells in thyroid cancer.
[en] To elucidate alteration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activity of peripheral lymphocytes and helper/inducer and suppressor/cytototxic T cells in patients with thyroid tumors, the author examined PNP activity, and CD4+ and CD8+ cells of peripheral blood in 20 cases of simple goiter, 9 cases of thyroid adenoma and 20 cases of thyroid cancer as well as 11 cases of adult healthy subjects as control. Diagnoses were established on the basis of commonly accepted clinical and biochemical criteria in simple goiter and were confirmed histopathologically in thyroid adenoma and cancer. All blood was obtained from veins of the patients and control subjects in Pusan National University Hospital during the period of January to August, 1991. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) The PNP activity was significantly decreased or tended to be decreased in thyroid adenomas and cancers as compared with control subjects and simple goiters. 2) The percentage of CD8 cells was significantly decreased or tended to be decreased in thyroid cancers as compared with simple goiters, thyroid adenomas and control subjects. 3) The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly increased or tended to be increased in thyroid cancer as compared with simple goiters, thyroid adenomas and control subjects. On the basis of the results, it can be suggested that the immunodysfunction in thyroid cancer may be due to decreased suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, and the estimation of PNP activity of peripheral lymphocyte is a helpful test in detecting the immune status in thyroid tumors.
[en] The effect of gamma irradiation on the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) of the ALICE time-of-flight detector was tested using the electron beam dump of the Pohang linear Accelerator. We measured the current in the chamber, the single rate, and the cosmic-ray detection efficiency before and after 9 hours of irradiation, which amounts to more than 10 years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) running. The current and the single rate were reduced after irradiation whereas the efficiency did not show any significant changes
[en] Highlights: • A series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed for NPP structure to investigate the soil–foundation-structure interaction with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock. • SFSI phenomena for NPP structure were observed directly using experimental method. • Effect of the soil stiffness and nonlinear characteristics on SFSI was estimated. • There are comparisons of the control motions for seismic design of a NPP structure. • Subsoil condition, earthquake intensity and control motion affected to seismic load. - Abstract: To evaluate the earthquake loads for the seismic design of a nuclear containment structure, it is necessary to consider the soil–foundation-structure interaction (SFSI) due to their interdependent behavior. Especially, understanding the effects of soil stiffness under the structure and the location of control motion to SFSI are very important. Motivated by these requirements, a series of dynamic centrifuge tests were performed with various soil conditions from loose sand to weathered rock (WR), as well as different seismic intensities for the bedrock motion. The different amplification characteristics in peak-accelerations profile and effects of soil-nonlinearity in response spectrum were observed. The dynamic behaviors were compared between surface of free-field and foundation of the structure for the evaluation of the control motion for seismic design. It was found that dynamic centrifuge test has potentials to estimate the seismic load considering SFSI
[en] The authors observed functional change of the CBD and the afferent loop with the transit time of 99mTc-DISIDA scintigram in patients treated by the surgical operation of gastric ulcers and cancer at Busan National University Hospital from June, 1987 to April, 1988. So authors estimated the time between the peak activity of the CBD and the afferent loop (TCA), the half transit time of the CBD activity (t1/2 CBD) and the half transit time of the afferent loop activity (t1/2 A-loop) in 9 patients undergone truncal vagotomy, who have no specific symptoms at 2 to 6 months after the operation, 5 patients undergone the operation without truncal vagotomy, and 7 persons as a control group. The results were as follows: 1) In control group, the mean TCA, t1/2 CBD and t1/2 duodenum were 8.6±9.0 min., 38.7±17.3 min. and 28.6±10.9 min, respectively. 2) In the operation group without truncal vagotomy, the mean TCA, t1/2 CBD and t1/2 A-loop were 10.0±7.1min. 48.2±22.3 min. and 39.4±26.7 min. respectively. 3) In the operation group with truncal vagotomy, the mean TCA, t1/2 CBD and t1/2 A-loop were 15.0±8.7 min., 36.1±16.5 min. and 42.6±24.4 min, respectively. From the above results, we concluded that the transit time of the CBD and the afferent loop is not affected by truncal vagotomy.
[en] Tc-99m MIBI scintimammography (SMM) is known to be a useful diagnostic tool for primary breast cancer. We conducted this study to compare the quantitative and visual analysis for detection of primary breast cancer and also investigated the incremental role of quantitative index of SMM. Methods: 520 highly suspected breast cancer patients (malignant 370: palpable 232, nonpalpable 138; benign 150: palpable 67, nonpalpable 83) were included in this study. The SMM was performed 10 min after the injection of 750 MBq of Tc-99m MIBI. For visual analysis, three-scoring based method was used. The lesions to non-lesion ratios (L/Ns) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to determine the optimal visual grade, to calculate cut-off value of L/N and to investigate whether the L/N could provide incremental value additive to visual analysis. The patients were divided into four groups according to the tumor size (group A: size ≤ 1 cm; group B: 1 cm < size ≤ 3 cm; group C: 3 cm < size ≤ 5 cm; group D: size > 5 cm). Also, the patients were divided into two groups according to age (under and over 45 years) to investigate incremental value of quantitative analysis. Results: When visual grade 3 was used as the cut-off grade, the sensitivity and specificity were 82.7 and 78%, respectively. The L/N of malignant breast disease was significantly higher than that of benign (2.00±1.88 versus 0.60±0.7, P<0.01). When L/N of 1.27 was used as the cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity of SMM were 77.6 and 83.3%, respectively. When the L/N was added to visual grade, the area under curve (AUC) of visual + quantitative (V+Q) analyses was higher than that of visual (V) and quantitative (Q) analyses (AUC 0.874 versus 0.803, P<0.01). In group A and B, the AUCs of V+Q (0.861, 0.895) were higher than those of V (0.808, 0.781) and Q (0.808, 0.813). In group C, the AUC of V+Q (0.847) was higher than that of Q (0.803, P=0.041). However, the AUC of V (0.915) was higher than that of V+Q (P=0.009). In group D, there were no statistical differences between V+Q (0.685) and V (0.570, P=0.058) and Q (0.620, P=0.145). The V+Q revealed incremental value in the detection of primary breast cancer in both age groups. Also, in older age patients group (over 45 years), the specificities of Q and V+Q were higher than younger group (under 45 years). For axillary lymph node involvement, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SMM were 66.9, 70.1, and 68%, respectively. Conclusion: From this study, the optimal visual grade for diagnosis of breast cancer was grade 3 and cut-off value of L/N was 1.27. Also, we found that the L/N provides incremental value additive to visual analysis. Especially, when the tumor is small (size ≤3 cm), the L/N should be obtained for the diagnosis of breast cancer. The V+Q revealed incremental value in the detection of primary breast cancer in both age groups. Also, in older age patients group, the specificities of Q and V+Q were higher than younger group
[en] This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user's options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author)
[en] The size and distribution of welding residual stress and welding deformation in welding structures have an effect on various sorts of damage like brittle failure, fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. So, research for this problem is necessary continuously. In this study, non-destructive technique using laser electronic speckle pattern interferometry, plate of welding specimen according to the external load on the entire behavior of residual stress are presented measurement techniques. Once, welding specimen force tensile loading, using electronic speckle pattern interferometry is measured. Welding specimen of base metal and weld zone measure strain from measured result, this using measure elastic modulus. In this study, electronic speckle pattern interferometry use weld zone and base metal parts of the strain differences using were presented in residual stress calculated value, This residual stress value were calculated by numerical calculation. Consequently, weld zone of modulus high approximately 3.7 fold beside base metal and this measured approximately 8.46 MPa