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[en] Borate concentrated wastes generated from liquid waste evaporator of 12 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) have been processed to be dry using concentrated waste drying system (CWDS) in Korea. Borate wastes had been stabilized or solidified using paraffin as a binder since 1995, but the solidification process is stopped and concentrated wastes are just stored in drums and on standby at present because paraffin waste forms have some sorts of problems such as heterogeneous forming (stratification), low compressive strength, and high leaching rate. According to No. 2005-18 of Notices of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), all of low- and intermediate level waste (LILW) forms must satisfy the requirement of solidification before they are delivered to the final repository in Kyeongju. In this study, polymer solidification technology is proposed to treat borate concentrated wastes. Originally, this technology has been developed and used to solidify the spent ion exchange resin in many countries. Most commercial polymer binders include epoxy, polyester and viny lester styrene, etc. Recently in May 2003, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) issued a report confirming that APSTM(Diversified Technologies Services), a kind of polymer waste form, met the NRC's Waste Form requirements for Class B and C wastes. The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) reviewed the INEEL report, and the E-5 Committee issued a letter of waste form approval for the APSTM process. This serves as a national approval in the US, replacing the now defunct NRC Topical Report Program
[en] Despite the rising influence of public opinion on government energy policy formulation and implementation, the roles of pro and/or anti-environmental attitudes among residents have not been empirically examined. To quantify time-varying environmental attitudes among local residents, we exploit geo-specific Google search-query data derived from Internet-based “big data” and verify through ordinary least squares regression outcomes regarding environmental behavior. For the purpose of drawing policy implications, we revisit decisions by state governments of the United States to adopt three well-known green electricity policies: renewable energy portfolio, net metering rules, and public benefit funds. As some states have not yet adopted some (or any) of these policies, unlike previous studies, we handle the issue by examining right-censored data and applying a duration-based econometric method called the accelerated failure time model. We found state residents’ environmental attitudes to have statistically significant roles, after controlling for other traditional time-varying policy adoption factors. Interestingly, the extent to which anti-environmental attitudes affect a state’s policy adoption differs across green energy policies, and knowing this can help a local government formulate better-tailored environmental policy. In particular, researchers can use our method of incorporating citizens’ environmental attitudes to discuss relevant issues in the field of energy policy.
[en] The Fukushima nuclear disaster has significantly changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. It is important to understand how this change has occurred in different countries before the global community revises existing nuclear policies. This study examines the effect of the Fukushima disaster on public acceptance of nuclear energy in 42 countries. We find that the operational experience of nuclear power generation which has significantly affected positive public opinion about nuclear energy became considerably negative after the disaster, suggesting fundamental changes in public acceptance regardless of the level of acceptance before the disaster. In addition, contrary to our expectation, the proportion of nuclear power generation is positively and significantly related to public acceptance of nuclear energy after the Fukushima accident and government pressure on media content led to a greater decrease in the level of public acceptance after the accident. Nuclear energy policymakers should consider the varied factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy in each country depending on its historical, environmental, and geographical circumstances before they revise nuclear policy in response to the Fukushima accident. - Highlights: • Fukushima accident has negatively changed public attitudes toward nuclear energy. • Effect of operational experience became considerably negative after the accident. • Effect of proportion of nuclear power generation is positive after the accident. • Effect of government pressure on media content became negative after the accident. • Country specific policy responses on nuclear public acceptance are required
[en] Across the globe, public acceptance of nuclear power is a crucial factor for governmental establishment of a nuclear energy program. Therefore, it is important to understand the determinants of public acceptance of nuclear power. This study examines the effects of knowledge, trust, risk, and benefit related factors on public acceptance of nuclear power across 19 countries. We consider three levels of public acceptance – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – and classify countries into four groups according to the ratio of those three levels of public acceptance. Our results indicate that knowledge of nuclear inspection is more effective than trust in inspection authorities in creating stronger public acceptance among people in the countries with a high level of reluctant acceptance and a low level of strong acceptance, while trust in inspection authorities is more important than knowledge of nuclear inspection for the selection between opposition and reluctant acceptance in countries with a low level of reluctant acceptance and a high level of strong acceptance. Without grouping the countries, we found that trust in inspection authorities is crucial for the decision between opposition and reluctant acceptance. Additionally, the generation of electricity has the most positive effect on public acceptance of nuclear power. - Highlights: • We examine public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power across 19 countries. • Three levels of PA – strongly accept, reluctantly accept, and oppose – are considered. • Knowledge is most effective in creating stronger PA. • Trust is effective in shifting PA from opposition to reluctant acceptance. • Low risk and benefit of electricity generation enhance PA the most