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[en] Monodisperse organically modified silica (ORMOSIL) particles, with an average diameter ranging from 550 nm to 4.2 μm, were prepared at low temperature at a scale of about 10 g/batch by a simple one-step self-emulsion process. The reaction mixture was composed only of water, phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS), and a base catalyst, without any surfactants. The size control of the particles and the monodispersity of resultant particles were achieved through the controlled supply of hydrolyzed PTMS monomer molecules, which was enabled by manipulating the reaction parameters, such as monomer concentration, type and amount of base catalyst, stirring rate, and reaction temperature. PTMS-based ORMOSIL particles were converted into silica particles by employing either a wet chemical reaction with an oleum-sulfuric acid mixture or thermal treatment above 650 °C. Complete removal of organic groups from the ORMOSIL particles was achieved by the thermal treatment while ~ 74% removal was done by the chemical process used. .
[en] Development of mesoporous structures of composite silica particles with various organic functional groups was investigated by using a two-step process, consisting of one-pot sol-gel process in the presence and absence of ammonium hydroxide and a selective dissolution process with an ethanol-water mixture. Five different organosilanes, including methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMS), vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS), and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) were employed. The mesoporous (organically modified silica) ORMOSIL particles were obtained even in the absence of ammonium hydroxide when the reaction mixture contained APTMS. The morphology of the particles, however, were different from those prepared with ammonia catalyst and the same organosilane mixtures, probably because the overall hydrolysis/condensation rates became slower. Co-existence of APTMS and VTMS was essential to prepare mesoporous particles from ternary organosilane mixtures. The work presented here demonstrates that organosilica particles with desired functionality and desired mesoporous structures can be obtained by selecting proper types of organosilane monomers and performing a facile and mild process either with or without ammonium hydroxide.
[en] A two-dimensional, non-isothermal model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell was implemented to elucidate heat balance through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). To take local utilization of platinum catalyst into account, the model was presented by considering the formation of agglomerated catalyst structure in the electrodes. To estimate energy balance through the MEA, various modes of heat generation and depletion by reversible/irreversible heat release, ohmic heating and phase change of water were included in the present model. In addition, dual-pathway kinetics, that is a combination of Heyrovsky–Volmer and Tafel–Volmer kinetics, were employed to precisely describe the hydrogen oxidation reaction. The proposed model was validated with experimental cell polarization, resulting in excellent fit. The temperature distribution inside the MEA was analyzed by the model. Consequently, a thorough investigation was made of the relation between membrane thickness and the temperature distribution inside the MEA.
[en] To enhance the optical property of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film, zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films were formed on the interfaces of ZnO thin film as a passivation and a substrate layer. ZnO and ZnS thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using diethyl zinc, H2O, and H2S as precursors. Investigations by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that ZnS/ZnO/ZnS multi-layer thin films with clear boundaries were achieved by ALD and that each film layer had its own polycrystalline phase. The intensity of the photoluminescence of the ZnO thin film was enhanced as the thickness of the ZnO thin film increased and as ZnS passivation was applied onto the ZnO thin film interfaces.