Results 1 - 3 of 3
Results 1 - 3 of 3. Search took: 0.016 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Highlights: • New life-cycle method implemented to compare 19 electricity generation technologies. • Long distance fuel transport significantly reduces energetic-economic viability. • Low load factors for solar and wind sharply reduces energetic-economic viability. • Electricity sector jobs for generation will double in renewable-majority futures. • Natural gas without carbon capture is not a suitable bridge for a low-carbon future. - Abstract: Shifting to a low-carbon electricity future requires up-to-date information on the energetic, environmental and socio-economic performance of technologies. Here, we present a novel comprehensive bottom-up process chain framework that is applied to 19 electricity generation technologies, consistently incorporating 12 life-cycle phases from extraction to decommissioning. For each life-cycle phase of each technology the following 4 key metrics were assessed: material consumption, energy return ratios, job requirements and greenhouse gas emissions. We also calculate a novel global electricity to grid average for these metrics and present a metric variability analysis by altering transport distance, load factors, efficiency, and fuel density per technology. This work quantitatively supports model-to-policy frameworks that drive technology selection and investment based on energetic-economic viability, job creation and carbon emission reduction of technologies. The results suggest energetic-economic infeasibility of electricity generation networks with substantial shares of: i) liquefied natural gas transport, ii) long distance transport based hard and brown coal and pipeline natural gas, and iii) low-load factor solar-photovoltaic, concentrated solar power, onshore and offshore wind. Direct sector jobs can be expected to double in renewable-majority scenarios. All combustion-powered technologies without natural (biomass) or artificial carbon capture (fossil fuels) are not compatible with a low carbon electricity generation future.
[en] Highlights: • A novel methodology to estimate global wind energy potential is proposed. • Wind park suitability is constrained by land use and water depth. • Power production density is derived from energy conservation laws. • Maximum wind potential is dependent on minimum Energy Return on Investment. • Total potential is established between 700 and 100 EJ/year at EROImin from 5 to 12. - Abstract: Looking ahead to 2050 many countries intend to utilise wind as a prominent energy source. Predicting a realistic maximum yield of onshore and offshore wind will play a key role in establishing what technology mix can be achieved, specifying investment needs and designing policy. Historically, studies of wind resources have however differed in their incorporation of physical limits, land availability and economic constraints, resulting in a wide range of harvesting potentials. To obtain a more reliable estimate, physical and economic limits must be taken into account. We use a grid-cell approach to assess the theoretical wind potential in all geographic locations by considering technological and land-use constraints. An analysis is then performed where the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) of the wind potential is evaluated. Finally, a top-down limitation on kinetic energy available in the atmospheric boundary layer is imposed. With these constraints wind farm designs are optimized in order to maximize the net energy flux. We find that the global wind potential is substantially lower than previously established when both physical limits and a high cut-off EROI > 10 is applied. Several countries’ potentials are below what is needed according to 100% renewable energy studies.
[en] Developing countries struggle to implement suitable electric power and water services, failing to match infrastructure with urban expansion. Integrated modelling of urban water and power systems would facilitate the investment and planning processes, but there is a crucial gap to be filled with regards to extending models to incorporate the food supply in developing contexts. In this paper, a holistic methodology and platform to support the resilient and sustainable planning at city region level for multiple sectors was developed for applications in urban energy systems (UES) and the energy-water-food nexus, combining agent-based modelling - to simulate and forecast resource demands on spatial and temporal scales - with resource network optimization, which incorporates capital expenditures, operational costs, environmental impacts and the opportunity cost of food production foregone (OPF). Via a scenario based approach, innovative water supply and energy deployment policies are presented, which address the provision of clean energy for every citizen and demonstrate the potential effects of climate change. The results highlighted the vulnerability of Ghana's power generation infrastructure and the need for diversification. Feed-in tariffs and investment into supporting infrastructure and agriculture intensification will effectively increase the share of renewable energy and reduce carbon emissions.