Results 1 - 10 of 14
Results 1 - 10 of 14. Search took: 0.015 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The Kh-1 power unit reactor control by using of design algorithm. Application of additional recommendations within the limits of power distribution fixed axial offset maintaining method. Modernization of Kh-2 unit, regarding to maneuverable peculiarities. Improvements of the reactor control algorithms. The basic results of improved algorithms trials. A justification of trials of Kh-2 maneuverable operation mode and transients calculated imitation. The basic results of maneuvering mode trials. A select of a power control method. A justification of Kh-2 test operation in a maneuverable mode (Authors)
[en] INPRO area of waste management: scope of consideration: • INPRO assessment of waste management is based on analysis of all waste streams from creation to final disposal from a given NES including waste from: • Mining and milling; • Refining, conversion and enrichment; • UOX and MOX fabrication; • NPP operation (including spent fuel); • Spent fuel storage and reprocessing. • Interfaces with other INPRO areas: • Releases from waste disposal discussed in INPRO manual on waste management (safety of end state); • Safety of spent fuel storage and reprocessing considered as part the INPRO area of safety of fuel cycle; • Waste arising from potential large emergency release discussed implicitly as part of end state and predisposal waste management consideration.
[en] Overview in INPRO draft manual on nuclear reactor safety: • Proposed simplification of structure of methodology: – Reduction of number of basic principles from four to one; – Reduction of number of user requirements from 14 to 10 (by combining); – Elimination of overlapping criteria in different user requirements; and – Elimination of overlap with area of environmental impact of stressors (assessment of public exposure at normal operation conditions and AOO). • By request, inclusion of safety culture into the safety manual (removed from the manual on infrastructure).
[en] Conclusion: • Excellent alignment in capital, O&M and D&D costs has been demonstrated for G4ECONS and NEST. • Discrepancies between G4ECONS and NEST major results are similar to those among different systems of NEST (HU, MIT etc) and normally stay within 1-2%. • Potential future joint activities of EMWG and INPRO are currently under discussion.
[en] Conclusion: • On-going INPRO methodology update project is focused on making the guidance more transparent, efficient and ‘user friendly’; • Update of economics manual has been performed in 2013; •Work on further improvement of INPRO assessment method is going on in all areas.
[en] Summary of INPRO proposal in 2013 GIF/INPRO-IAEA interface meeting: • Closed fuel cycle system based on one of the GIF reactor types; • Scope of NESA, i.e. areas of assessment, depends on the input data availability; Example: assessment of NES based on SFR in the areas of Safety, Environmental stressors, Resources, Waste Management and Proliferation Resistance. • Different levels of consideration possible (User Requirements level or Criteria level); • INPRO prospective interest: Feedback from the assessment of systems based on innovative reactors. • GIF prospective interest: Application of INPRO methodology may help to reveal potential gaps in R&D program and to close these gaps; NESA study may be useful for future marketing of the reactor design.
[en] INPRO methodology in the area of economics asks: • Sustainable nuclear energy system must be cost competitive against other available energy sources. • Investment in NES must be attractive compared to investment in other available energy sources. •Investment in NES must have acceptable risk. • Nuclear power plant should have flexible design
[en] Conclusion: • INPRO methodology covers two aspects of environment: – Impact of stressors on environment; – Depletion of resources in the environment. • INPRO methodology offers using simplified method to perform sustainability assessment in the area of impact of stressors; • INPRO methodology asks for availability of resources at least until the end of the century.
[en] Conclusion: • Updated INPRO manual on economics was published in August 2014; • Availability of reliable input data is major constraint for application of the INPRO methodology in the area of economics; • Improvements of sensitivity analysis methods and tools are expected to reduce critical dependence of INPRO economics assessment on availability and reliability of input data.
[en] Benchmarking of the economic methodologies developed by Generation IV International Forum (GIF)and IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), was performed for Generation IV fast reactor systems. The Economics Modelling Working Group (EMWG) of GIF developed an EXCEL-based spreadsheet package, G4ECONS, to calculate the levelized unit electricity cost (LUEC). G4ECONS is sufficiently generic in the sense that it can accept the types of projected input, performance and cost data that are expected to become available for Generation IV systems through various development phases and that it can model both open and closed fuel cycles. The Nuclear Energy System Assessment (NESA) Economic Support Tool (NEST) was developed to enable an economic analysis using the INPRO methodology to easily calculate outputs including the LUEC and financial figures of merit such as internal rate of return, return of investment and net present value. NEST is also EXCEL-based and can be used to evaluate nuclear reactor systems with open, MOX recycling and closed fuel cycles, and alternative power plants. The following three systems of the NEST tool were used in this exercise.