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[en] We examine power dissipation in different clocking schemes for molecular quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) circuits. 'Landauer clocking' involves the adiabatic transition of a molecular cell from the null state to an active state carrying data. Cell layout creates devices which allow data in cells to interact and thereby perform useful computation. We perform direct solutions of the equation of motion for the system in contact with the thermal environment and see that Landauer's Principle applies: one must dissipate an energy of at least kBT per bit only when the information is erased. The ideas of Bennett can be applied to keep copies of the bit information by echoing inputs to outputs, thus embedding any logically irreversible circuit in a logically reversible circuit, at the cost of added circuit complexity. A promising alternative which we term 'Bennett clocking' requires only altering the timing of the clocking signals so that bit information is simply held in place by the clock until a computational block is complete, then erased in the reverse order of computation. This approach results in ultralow power dissipation without additional circuit complexity. These results offer a concrete example in which to consider recent claims regarding the fundamental limits of binary logic scaling
[en] Heat leakage is an important parameter to reflect heat insulated performance of cryogenic vessel. According to the current standard requirements, it needs to measure the daily evaporation rate to indicate heat leakage. The test needs-over 24h after cryogenic vessel in heat equilibrium as standard required, therefore test efficiency is poor and new efficient method is required to cut test time. First of all, the volume of instantaneous evaporated gas and heat leakage are calculated by the current standard corresponding to the maximum allowable daily evaporation rate of cryogenic vessel. Depending on the relationship between real daily evaporation rate and maximum allowable daily evaporation rate of cryogenic vessel, we designed a new test method based on the pressure changes over time in cryogenic vessel to determine whether its heat insulated performance meets requirements or not. Secondly, the heat transfer process was analyzed in measurement of cryogenic vessel, and the heat transfer equations of whole system were established. Finally, the test was completed in four hours; meanwhile the heat leakage and daily evaporation rate of cryogenic vessel are calculated basing on test data
[en] The synergism effect of total ionizing dose (TID) on a single event transient (SET) in a bipolar comparator is investigated. Experimental results show that the shapes of the SET are considerably influenced by the TID accumulated in low dose rates. The variation tendency of SET shapes can be accurately simulated by temperature switching irradiation. The mechanism of this synergism effect is also analyzed in brief via the operating schematic of a comparator. After the accumulation of 100 krad(Si), the lower tendency of negative SET can be attributed to the degeneration of β. The change tendency of a positive SET, either lower or higher, is dependent on the load condition that limits the output range of the comparator. (paper)
[en] The mechanisms occurring when the switched temperature technique is applied, as an accelerated enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) test technique, are investigated in terms of a specially designed gate-controlled lateral PNP transistor (GLPNP) that used to extract the interface traps (Nit) and oxide trapped charges (Not). Electrical characteristics in GLPNP transistors induced by 60Co gamma irradiation are measured in situ as a function of total dose, showing that generation of Nit in the oxide is the primary cause of base current variations for the GLPNP. Based on the analysis of the variations of Nit and Not, with switching the temperature, the properties of accelerated protons release and suppressed protons loss play critical roles in determining the increased Nit formation leading to the base current degradation with dose accumulation. Simultaneously the hydrogen cracking mechanisms responsible for additional protons release are related to the neutralization of Not extending enhanced Nit buildup. In this study the switched temperature irradiation has been employed to conservatively estimate the ELDRS of GLPNP, which provides us with a new insight into the test technique for ELDRS. (paper)
[en] Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are radio transients lasting only about a few milliseconds. They seem to occur at cosmological distances. We propose that these events can originate in the collapse of the magnetospheres of Kerr–Newman black holes (KNBHs). We show that the closed orbits of charged particles in the magnetospheres of these objects are unstable. After examining the dependencies on the specific charge of the particle and the spin and charge of the KNBH, we conclude that the resulting timescale and radiation mechanism fit well with extant observations of FRBs. Furthermore, we argue that the merger of a KNBH binary is a plausible central engine for the potential gamma-ray or radio afterglow following certain FRBs and can also account for gravitational wave (GW) events like GW 150914. Our model leads to predictions that can be tested by combined multi-wavelength electromagnetic and GW observations.
[en] Different SiGe processes and device designs are the critical influences of ionizing radiation damage. Based on the different ionizing radiation damage in SiGe HBTs fabricated by Huajie and an IBM SiGe process, quantitatively numerical simulation of ionizing radiation damage was carried out to explicate the distribution of radiation-induced charges buildup in KT9041 and IBM SiGe HBTs. The sensitive areas of the EB-spacer and isolation oxide of KT9041 are much larger than those of the IBM SiGe HBT, and the distribution of charge buildup in KT9041 is several orders of magnitude greater than that of the IBM SiGe HBT. The result suggests that the simulations are consistent with the experiment, and indicates that the geometry of the EB-spacer, the area of the Si/SiO interface and the isolation structure could be contributing to the different ionizing radiation damage. (paper)
[en] In the probe limit, we numerically study the holographic p-wave superconductor phase transitions in the higher curvature theory. Concretely, we study the influences of Gauss–Bonnet parameter α on the Maxwell complex vector model (MCV) in the five-dimensional Gauss–Bonnet–AdS black hole and soliton backgrounds, respectively. In the two backgrounds, the improving Gauss–Bonnet parameter α and dimension of the vector operator Δ inhibit the vector condensate. In the black hole, the condensate quickly saturates a stable value at lower temperature. Moreover, both the stable value of condensate and the ratio increase with α. In the soliton, the location of the second pole of the imaginary part increases with α, which implies that the energy of the quasiparticle excitation increases with the improving higher curvature correction. In addition, the influences of the Gauss–Bonnet correction on the MCV model are similar to the ones on the SU(2) p-wave model, which confirms that the MCV model is a generalization of the SU(2) Yang–Mills model even without the applied magnetic field to some extent.
[en] In this paper the single-event responses of the silicon germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) are investigated by TCAD simulations and laser microbeam experiment. A three-dimensional (3D) simulation model is established, the single event effect (SEE) simulation is further carried out on the basis of SiGe HBT devices, and then, together with the laser microbeam test, the charge collection behaviors are analyzed, including the single event transient (SET) induced transient terminal currents, and the sensitive area of SEE charge collection. The simulations and experimental results are discussed in detail and it is demonstrated that the nature of the current transient is controlled by the behaviors of the collector–substrate (C/S) junction and charge collection by sensitive electrodes, thereby giving out the sensitive area and electrode of SiGe HBT in SEE. (paper)
[en] Highlights: • HTWCS system is established while considering uncertainty of wind power. • An enhanced multi-objective bee colony optimization algorithm is proposed. • Some heuristic repairing strategies are designed to handle various constraints. • HTWCS problem with economic/environment objectives is solved by EMOBCO. - Abstract: This paper presents a short-term economic/environmental hydro-thermal-wind complementary scheduling (HTWCS) system considering uncertainty of wind power, as well as various complicated non-linear constraints. HTWCS system is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem to optimize conflictive objectives, i.e., economic and environmental criteria. Then an enhanced multi-objective bee colony optimization algorithm (EMOBCO) is proposed to solve this problem, which adopts Elite archive set, adaptive mutation/selection mechanism and local searching strategy to improve global searching ability of standard bee colony optimization (BCO). Especially, a novel constraints-repairing strategy with compressing decision space and a violation-adjustment method are used to handle various hydraulic and electric constraints. Finally, a daily scheduling simulation case of hydro-thermal-wind system is conducted to verify feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed EMOBCO in solving HTWCS problem. The simulation results indicate that the proposed EMOBCO can provide lower economic cost and smaller pollutant emission than other method established recently while considering various complex constraints in HTWCS problem.
[en] Phase change materials (PCMs) that can store the heat energy obtained from intermittent solar irradiation are very important for solar energy absorption cooling system. In this work, an organic compound that melts at the temperature of 368.2 ± 0.5 K was applied as PCM. The specific heat capacities of the PCM were measured by temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry from 198.15 to 431.15 K. The thermodynamic functions of [HT–H298.15] and [ST–S298.15] were then calculated based on the measured heat capacities data. Afterward, the long-term cyclic thermal energy storage stability and thermal stability of the PCM were investigated. The results show that the PCM melted and crystallized at about 368 and 364 K, respectively, with a phase change enthalpy (ΔtransH) of 21 kJ mol−1 (130 J g−1). Additionally, it exhibited good long-term cyclic thermal energy storage stability and thermal stability. Hence, the PCM could be applied as good PCM for solar energy absorption cooling.