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[en] This issue of 'Responsabilite et Environnement' journal comprises 24 papers covering 3 aspects of the civil nuclear industry: first, an analysis of the situation (8 papers: The evolving framework of activities in the nuclear electricity industry worldwide since 1950; What place for nuclear energy in open electricity markets?; Nuclear energy in scenarios for de-carbonizing the European energy mix by 2050; What happened at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi? And where are we now?; The Competitiveness of Nuclear Energy: From LCOE to System Costs; Calculating the costs of re-launching the nuclear industry and understanding the economic cycle; Managing radioactive wastes in France and the world; Jointly managing nuclear power and intermittent renewables for a low-carbon economy). Then, the debate and policies aspects (10 papers: Managing nuclear wastes; Nuclear safety and protection from radiation in France; Toward an international convergence of regulations on nuclear safety?; How to develop transparency and participation in civilian nuclear energy?; Can we overcome the fear of nuclear energy?; The French nuclear industry in transition; Civilian nuclear energy's strategic dimension; How to talk about nuclear energy in France?; A firsthand account from the mayor of a commune where a nuclear power plant is installed; The end of nuclear electricity, a science fiction). Finally, some industrial and technological considerations (6 papers: The Nuclear Mission in an Integrated, Carbon-Free Energy Future; Reactors of the 4. generation: Forms of technology and their prospects; Nuclear Power in a Clean Energy System; Replacing France's fleet of nuclear reactors; Industrial leverage for competitiveness in the nuclear industry; The supply of uranium and strategic metals for the nuclear industry: Is dependency the problem?)
[en] A simplified macro-economic model of how France's electricity mix will evolve by 2030 is presented. Each scenario in this model is evaluated using its total production cost, greenhouse gas emissions and impact on the country's balance of trade. Production data in half-hour increments are used from a three-year period. This simulation provides a tool for public decision-making. (authors)
[fr]Les auteurs ont bati une modelisation macroeconomique simplifiee de differents scenarii d'evolution du mix francais de production electrique a horizon 2030. Les scenarii sont evalues selon leur cout de production total, leurs emissions carbonees et leur impact sur le solde commercial de la France. Les donnees de production francaises sont utilisees en moyenne sur trois ans selon un pas demi-horaire. Cette modelisation peut etre consideree comme un outil d'aide a la decision publique. (auteurs)
[en] This report aims at highlighting solutions for a fixed location storage of electric power for tomorrow's power system, notably in order to compensate the intermittency of non-steerable means of production within the framework of ambitious scenarios of deployment of these intermittent production means. In the present status of knowledge regarding cost and lifetime of storage techniques, this study proposes some first assessments of investment needs for these scenarios in 'affordable' social-economic conditions (more particularly with limited 'cutoffs'). Thus, after an overview of technologies, processes and uses of electric power storage, the authors address and discuss industrial and economic aspects, and applications in terms of energy policy, and finally state several recommendations.
[fr]L'objet du rapport est de dresser des pistes de solutions pour le stockage stationnaire d'electricite dans le systeme electrique de demain en France, afin notamment de pallier l'intermittence de formes de production non pilotables dans le cadre de scenarios ambitieux de deploiement de ces dernieres. L'analyse aboutit aux constats suivants: En termes de retombees industrielles en France, le stockage d'electricite presente de reelles opportunites pour la production d'equipements (batteries, connectique, smart grids, etc.) et pour l'offre de services lies aux reseaux d'electricite. A cet effet, il convient d'engager des actions collectives de recherche, d'organisation de la filiere et in fine de creation d'activites sur le territoire national, alliees au deploiement d'unites de production de batteries pour vehicule electrique ou pour usage stationnaire. En l'etat actuel des technologies, il subsiste une impasse economique majeure du stockage stationnaire qui aurait une place substantielle dans le systeme electrique francais, en raison du besoin massif de stockage inter-saisonnier et des profils de variabilite des energies solaires et eoliennes. Il convient d'associer a la fonction de stockage d'electricite d'autres usages que la seule fonction d'equilibrage de l'offre et de la demande, y compris en lien avec des services de mobilite tels que le vehicule electrique, et il faut viser une baisse des couts d'investissement compatibles avec l'enjeu du stockage saisonnier.
[en] The issue of power quality is largely absent from discussions on energy, including those related to multi-annual energy programming, where the focus remains on security of supply, admittedly of critical importance. Clearly, blackouts or power outages, such as those that crippled Paris' Montparnasse railway station and its surrounds in late July 2018, tend to make the headlines. And a deep dive into this subject rapidly leads to complex considerations on the physics of electricity and network codes that the non-specialist may find daunting. Nevertheless, the growing dependence of our economies on digital technology and the emergence of intermittent renewable energies in the electricity mix are creating new challenges, with the question of power quality being a prime example. (authors)
[en] Storing electricity is undoubtedly a major worldwide issue in the energy transition, since it is indispensable for uploading electricity from intermittent renewables (wind power and photovoltaics) to the grid. The value of storing electricity is related to the services obtained, especially in areas where the grid is insufficient. The centralization of hydroelectricity - still, by far, the prevailing technology - keeps it from satisfying all needs. The rapidly lowering cost of lithium-ion batteries represents an opportunity, especially for transportation, electricity grids and, to a lesser extent, consumers who produce their own current. Battery storage can compete with others forms of technology or services for managing flexibility: steering demand (load management), storing heat, etc. For mainland France, it would be utopian to imagine an electricity mix based only on hydro, wind and photovoltaic power and the storage of electricity, since its cost would soar within a foreseeable period of time. (authors)
[fr]Au niveau mondial, le stockage de l'electricite est sans aucun doute l'un des defis majeurs de la transition energetique, car il est indispensable a l'integration dans le systeme electrique des energies renouvelables intermittentes (EnRi), l'eolien et le photovoltaique. La valeur du stockage d'electricite est liee aux differents services qu'il peut rendre, particulierement dans les zones ou le reseau est insuffisant. L'hydraulique est encore, de tres loin, la technologie predominante, mais elle est centralisee, ce qui ne permet pas de repondre a tous les besoins. La baisse rapide des couts des batteries Li-Ion est une opportunite, notamment pour la mobilite et pour differents services aux reseaux electriques et, dans une faible mesure, aux auto-consommateurs. Le stockage par batterie peut etre en competition avec d'autres technologies ou services permettant de gerer la flexibilite: pilotage de la demande (effacements), stockage de chaleur, etc. En ce qui concerne la France metropolitaine, un mix electrique compose uniquement d'hydraulique, d'eolien, de photovoltaique et de stockage parait utopique, tant son cout serait enorme a un horizon de temps previsible. (auteurs)
[en] In October 2014, the International Energy Agency presented its first in depth report 'Morocco 2014 Energy Policy Review' of Morocco's energy policy, an evaluation and recommendations, with as reference the shared goals of the Agency. The accent was placed on renewable energies energy efficiency and climate change. The 'Moroccan way' of energy transition merits the attention of energy economists and of the negotiators involved in COP21. (authors)
[en] Pierre-Franck Chevet, former president of the ASN, and Herve Mariton, mayor of Crest and former MP, interviewed by Richard Lavergne and Delphine Mantienne on the topic of 'How to talk about nuclear energy in France?'. Both interviewees explain the difficulties to talk about nuclear energy with the general public and with nuclear opponents in particular
[en] This study aimed at elaborating propositions of evolution for the criterion of electric power system failure, and for the criterion of security of natural gas supply, notably at the light of difficulties met during winter 2016-2017. The authors analysed the response to a failure due to a mismatch between offer and demand. While examining the case of electric power and then the case of gas, the authors justify the existence of both security criteria, propose a comparison with other European countries, analyse difficulties faced in 2012 and in January 2017. They discuss conceivable evolutions for the electric power system failure criterion. As far as the gas supply security criterion is concerned, they discuss benefits and drawbacks drawn from passing from a 2 per cent criterion to a 5 per cent criterion. Recommendations are made for both criteria
[en] The objective of this publication is to clarify the new competencies of territorial communities, to explicit renewed tools (notably in terms of planning or possibilities confirmed by the law on energy transition), and to raise issues related to the new governance of energy and climate. For different issues (land planning, energy, buildings and energy management, mobilities, economic development, agriculture, wastes), this report recalls the relationship with climate, analyses the competencies and the main action levers, proposes returns on experience, identifies possibilities of project financing, indicates tools and documents of interest, and proposes recommendations.
[en] A first session gathers contributions related to the dynamics of public controversies (social and historical aspects, emergence of a policy and of a controversy in the case of carbon sequestration and storage in the EU, political controversies between regulatory critic and radical critic). The second session questioned whether fossil energies were ended or back (French potential in shale gas, risks associated with the exploration and exploitation of shale gas, the different influences of the shale gas effect on gas industries and markets depending on the regions, status and controversies about carbon sequestration, coal supported by carbon sequestration and storage). The third session addressed the controversy about nuclear energy (calculation and probability perceptions about the risk of a major accident, the management of private and social costs of nuclear, sector competitiveness and electric power market regulation as key factors for the economic future of nuclear power, the economics of different options for nuclear on the long term). The fourth session addressed renewable energies and the conditions of success of a mobilising utopia (a promising biomass, limitations of renewable energies, the cost of a large scale integration of intermittent renewable energies, the wind energy landscape). Finally, a round table discussed the tensions between science, technology and public choices regarding energy.