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[en] A preliminary geologic investigation was conducted to determine if Triassic sedimentary rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure in North Carolina are favorable hosts for uranium deposits. Rocks of adjacent Carolina slate belt were also examined as a potential source of uranium. On the basis of favorability criteria for sandstone-type uranium deposits, and geologic and geophysical investigations of the study area, the most favorable sites for further investigation are (1) at the contacts between the Pekin and Cumnock and between the Pekin and Sanford Formations near the Colon cross structure and (2) at the base of the Jonesboro fault, which lies below the Sanford Formation, northwest of Sanford. The highly weathered granites southeast of the Jonesboro fault were a source of the detritus deposited on the cross structure and may have been a primary source of uranium. Uranium leached from the coarse sediment (Pekin Formation) of the cross structure may have been transported downdip and may have been precipitated by the carbonaceous shales of the Cumnock Formation on the western side of the cross structure or at the Pekin-Sanford contact to the east. The Jonesboro fault may provide an impermeable barrier to ground-water migration in the metamorphosed basement rocks below the Triassic sediments. Such a barrier would constitute a favorable site for the precipitation and retention of uranium. Scintillometer surveys and laboratory analyses indicate no anomalous surface radioactivity in the study area. However, deep surface weathering may have caused the uranium to be leached from the exposed rocks and redeposited at depth. Geologic investigations show that conditions which have proven favorable for deposition of uranium in other areas are present in the Triassic rocks of the Sanford basin and Colon cross structure. However, because of deep surface weathering, further subsurface studies are necessary to confirm the favorability of the rocks as hosts for uranium
[en] Using the separation of variables of the Dirac equations for the electron in the Kerr-Newman geometry, it is explicitly shown that the super-radiant scattering is not allowed for the electron wave on a Kerr-Newman black hole
[en] Coupled gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of a charged black hole are investigated using the Newman-Penrose formalism. Coupled equations governing perturbations away from the Kerr-Newman background solution are derived. These equations do not look separable in general. However, when restricted to the nonrotating case, they can be separated in Schwarzschild coordinates. The asymptotic solutions of the separated equations show that the net energy flux of the coupled gravitational and electromagnetic waves scattered on a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole is radially inward at infinity, that is there is no superradiant scattering. It is proved that the Newman-Penrose quantity chi1/sup B/ (identical with 3 psi2phi0/sup B/ - 2 phi1psi1/sup B/) or chi/sub-1/sup B/ (identical with 3 psi2phi2/sup B/ - 2 phi1psi3/sup B/) uniquely determines the nontrivial part of the perturbation of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. (The superscript ''B'' represents perturbation.) With chi1/sup B/ = 0 it is shown that the only well behaved perturbations are those corresponding to an infinitesimal change in the mass, charge, and angular-momentum parameters of the black hole
[en] Reconnaissance and detailed geologic and radiometric investigations were conducted throughout the Athens Quadrangle, Georgia and South Carolina, to evaluate the uranium favorability using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria. Surface and subsurface studies were augmented by aerial radiometric surveys, emanometry studies and hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance studies. The results of the investigations indicate environments favorable for allogenic deposits in metamorphic rocks adjacent to granite plutons, and Texas roll-type sandstone deposits in the Coastal Plain Province. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits are the placers of the Monazite Belt, pegmatites, and base- and precious-metal veins associated with faults and shear zones in metamorphic rocks
[en] Coupled gravitational and electromagnetic perturbation equations in the Kerr-Newman background geometry are supplemented with the source terms. Then, restricting to the Reissner-Nordstroem case, the radial equations are derived. The asymptotic solutions at infinity are discussed in connection with the spin polarizations
[en] This study evaluated the hot-ductility response, and hot-cracking susceptibility (fusion-zone solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking) of modified nuclear-grade and standard austenitic stainless steels. Extensive microstructural characterization using state-of-the-art analytical electron microscopy (TEM and STEM) as well as SEM (EDAX) and OLM was performed to correlate the material behavior with metallurgical characteristics. In addition, studies of the effect of Si, N, and rare earth elements on hot-cracking susceptibility, significance of the ductility dip phenomena and backfilled solidification cracks were also performed. Furthermore, based on the metallurgical evaluation, the possible mechanisms involved in solidification cracking and HAZ liquation cracking of the modified alloys are proposed. Finally, the optimized chemical specifications and requirements for nuclear-grade stainless steels are also suggested
[en] Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited
[en] Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC2-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC2-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC2-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC2-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC2-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC2-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC2-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC2-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC2-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within ∼0.25% Δρ, except a few small LANL fast assemblies. Relative to the MCNP solution, the MC2-2/TWODANT results overestimated the multiplication factor by 0.22 ∼ 0.35% Δρ for these small systems with very hard neutron spectrum. Comparisons of measured and calculated values for the fission reaction rate ratios of Godiva and Jezebel assemblies also showed that the MC2-2/TWODANT results agreed well with measurements within 2.7%. From a series of methodology review and ENDF/B-VII.0 data processing, several improvement needs to enhance accuracy were also identified for the ETOE-2/MC2-2 code system, including the multigroup slowing-down solution for whole-energy range, proper treatment for anisotropy of inelastic scattering, improved evaluation of inelastic and high-order anisotropic scattering source in RABANL calculations.
[en] PROTEUS is a suite of the neutronics codes, both old and new, that can be used within the SHARP codes being developed under the NEAMS program. Discussion here is focused on updates and verification and validation activities of the SHARP neutronics code, DeCART, for application to thermal reactor analysis. As part of the development of SHARP tools, the different versions of the DeCART code created for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis were integrated. Verification and validation tests for the integrated version were started, and the generation of cross section libraries based on the subgroup method was revisited for the targeted reactor types. The DeCART code has been reorganized in preparation for an efficient integration of the different versions for PWR, BWR, and VHTR analysis. In DeCART, the old-fashioned common blocks and header files have been replaced by advanced memory structures. However, the changing of variable names was minimized in order to limit problems with the code integration. Since the remaining stability problems of DeCART were mostly caused by the CMFD methodology and modules, significant work was performed to determine whether they could be replaced by more stable methods and routines. The cross section library is a key element to obtain accurate solutions. Thus, the procedure for generating cross section libraries was revisited to provide libraries tailored for the targeted reactor types. To improve accuracy in the cross section library, an attempt was made to replace the CENTRM code by the MCNP Monte Carlo code as a tool obtaining reference resonance integrals. The use of the Monte Carlo code allows us to minimize problems or approximations that CENTRM introduces since the accuracy of the subgroup data is limited by that of the reference solutions. The use of MCNP requires an additional set of libraries without resonance cross sections so that reference calculations can be performed for a unit cell in which only one isotope of interest includes resonance cross sections, among the isotopes in the composition. The OECD MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART as initial focus of the verification/validation efforts. Among the benchmark problems, Exercise 1 of Phase 1 is a steady-state benchmark case for the neutronics calculation for which block-wise cross sections were provided in 26 energy groups. This type of problem was designed for a homogenized geometry solver like DIF3D rather than the high-fidelity code DeCART. Instead of the homogenized block cross sections given in the benchmark, the VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library of DeCART was directly used for preliminary calculations. Initial results showed that the multiplication factors of a fuel pin and a fuel block with or without a control rod hole were off by 6, -362, and -183 pcm Dk from comparable MCNP solutions, respectively. The 2-D and 3-D one-third core calculations were also conducted for the all-rods-out (ARO) and all-rods-in (ARI) configurations, producing reasonable results. Figure 1 illustrates the intermediate (1.5 eV - 17 keV) and thermal (below 1.5 eV) group flux distributions. As seen from VHTR cores with annular fuels, the intermediate group fluxes are relatively high in the fuel region, but the thermal group fluxes are higher in the inner and outer graphite reflector regions than in the fuel region. To support the current project, a new three-year I-NERI collaboration involving ANL and KAERI was started in November 2011, focused on performing in-depth verification and validation of high-fidelity multi-physics simulation codes for LWR and VHTR. The work scope includes generating improved cross section libraries for the targeted reactor types, developing benchmark models for verification and validation of the neutronics code with or without thermo-fluid feedback, and performing detailed comparisons of predicted reactor parameters against both Monte Carlo solutions and experimental measurements. The following list summarizes the work conducted so far for PROTEUS-Thermal Tasks: Unification of different versions of DeCART was initiated, and at the same time code modernization was conducted to make code unification efficient; (2) Regeneration of cross section libraries was attempted for the targeted reactor types, and the procedure for generating cross section libraries was updated by replacing CENTRM with MCNP for reference resonance integrals; (3) The MHTGR-350 benchmark core was simulated using DeCART with VHTR-specific 238-group ENDF/B-VII.0 library, and MCNP calculations were performed for comparison; and (4) Benchmark problems for PWR and BWR analysis were prepared for the DeCART verification/validation effort. In the coming months, the work listed above will be completed. Cross section libraries will be generated with optimized group structures for specific reactor types.
[en] The effect of both radioactive and thermal effluents discharged from the plant on aquatic ecosystem is one of the primary concerns in evaluating the environmental impact due to the operation of the nuclear power plant. Biological alteration of aquatic ecosystems may be resulted from radioactive effluents, thermal pollution and chemical releases. There is also another possible synergistic effect, that is, the combination of the above stresses, which may cause an impact severer than that of the sum of the individual impact. This report deals with species diversity and seasonal variations of those numbers of phytoplankton, marine algae and microorganisms, and distribution of radioactivity of marine organisms, as well as those data pertaining to sea water analysis. The present survey is designed to provide a partial baseline information for environmental impact assessment of Kori nuclear plant unit no. 1. (author)