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[en] It is well recognized recently that ultrasonic technique is one of the most widely used methods of nondestructive evaluation to characterize material properties of nonconventional engineering materials. Therefore it is very important to understand physical phenomenon on propagation behavior of elastic wave in these materials, which is directly associated with ultrasonic signals in the test. In this study, the theoretical analysis on multi-scattering of harmonic elastic wave due to the particulate with interface between matrix and fiber in metal matrix composites(MMCs) was done on the basis of Lax's quasi-crystalline approximation and extinction theorem. SiC particulate (SiCp) reinforced A16061-T6 composite material was chosen for this analysis. From this analysis, frequency dependences of phase velocity and amplitude attenuation of effective plane wave due to the change of volume fraction of SiC particulate were clearly found. It was also shown that the interface condition between matrix and fiber in MMCs gives a direct effect on the variation of phase velocity of plane wave in MMCs
[en] Composites composed of a precipitation harden 2124 alloy matrix reinforced by SiC whiskers, which are fabricated by powder metallurgy, are susceptible to fatigue damage due to the pile-up of moving dislocation and the microcrack initiation along SiC-Al interfaces, especially at the external surfaces of a body. The initial process, such as pile-up of dislocation or microcrack, that corresponds to the stage I during fatigue failure process are too small to be detected and characterized by conventional ultrasonic technique. This paper describes the applicability of an acoustic microscope with Line-Focus-Beam(LFB) lens of 225MHz to evaluate fatigue damage of SiC whiskers reinforced Al alloy. The specimens which were 6.6mm thick, 13mm wide, and 105mm long in the gage section were fatigued in tension-tension under load control. The velocity of leaky surface and leaky pseudosurface acoustic waves are obtained by FFT analysis technique from V(z) curve which is a record of output of piezoelectric transducer. These results are discussed with the change of number of fatigue cycles. The result obtained by acoustic microscope is compared with that by ultrasonic technique generated at 5MHz with conventional surface wave transducers
[en] Eddy current non-destructive evaluation technique is one of the most useful electromagnetic methods for early detection of detects in critical nuclear components such as steam generator tubes, fuel rod and turbine disk, etc. For the better analysis of eddy current signal measured from experiment for awkward shape of defect, numerical modeling analysis is very important in understanding the physics of electromagnetic field/defect interactions. In this study, a two-dimensional magnetic vector potential finite element formation for the modeling of eddy current non-destructive evaluation phenomena is described. The technique is illustrated by predicting differential eddy current probe impedance plane trajectories for various defects in PWR steam generator tubes
[en] The rivet joint has typical structural feature that can be initiation site for the fatigue crack due to the combination of local stress concentration around rivet hole and the moisture trapping. From a viewpoint of structural assurance, it is crucial to evaluate the size of crack around the rivet holes by appropriate nondestructive evaluation techniques. Lamb wave that is one of guided waves, offers a more efficient tool for nondestructive inspection of plates. The neural network that is considered to be the most suitable for pattern recognition has been used by researchers in NDE field to classify different types of flaws and flaw sizes. In this study, clack size evaluation around the rivet hole using the neural network based on the back-propagation algorithm has been tarried out by extracting some features from the ultrasonic Lamb wave for A12024-T3 skin panel of aircraft. Special attention was paid to reduce the coupling effect between the transducer and the specimen by extracting some features related to time md frequency component data in ultrasonic waveform. It was demonstrated clearly that features extracted from the time and frequency domain data of Lamb wave signal were very useful to determine crack size initiated from rivet hole through neural network
[en] In this paper, Acoustic Emission technique(AE) has been applied to detect leak for heat exchanger by analyzing the characteristics of signal obtained from leak. It was confirmed that the characteristics of the signal generated by the turbulence of gas in the heat exchanger is narrow band signal having between 130-250KHz. Generally, the amplitude of leak signal is increased as the leak size increasing, but showed no significant change at frequency characteristic. Leak source location can be found by searching for the point of highest signal amplitude by comparing with several fixed sensors
[en] Metal matrix composites(MMCs) are rapidly becoming one of the strongest candidates for structural materials for high temperature application. It is well recognized that MMCs always experience at least one large cool-down from processing temperature before any significant applied service loading. Due to the large difference in thermal expansion coefficient between the fiber and matrix, large thermal residual stresses generally develop in composites. It was reported from many previous studies that the effects of thermal residual stress on mechanical properties and fracture behavior were much more complex and dramatic than conventional engineering materials. Therefore it is crucial to evaluate the effect of heat treatment which changes the characteristic of distribution of thermal residual stress in MMCs. Single fiber composite(SFC) test based on the balance in a micromechanical model is a quite convenient method to evaluate interfacial shear strength(IFSS) and the failure mode of composite. In this study the effect of heat treatment on IFSS and the microscopic failure mechanism of MMC is investigated by combining acoustic emission(AE) technique with fragmentation test. The characteristic of AE signal, IFSS and microscopic failure mechanism due to heat treatment condition is discussed.
[en] Metal matrix composites(MMCs) offer significant increase in elastic modulus and strength as well as improve resistance to fatigue initiation, creep and wear. For the successful application of MMC to structure, it is very important to understand micro-failure mechanism of material. However, due to complex deformation behavior intrinsically of bulk composite panel, single fiber composite(SFC) has been successfully used to understand a fundamental mechanism of deformation in MMC. The substantial failure mechanisms of MMC were affected by many factors such as the loading direction, the heat treatment condition, matrix properties and volume fraction. In this study, the microscopic deformation behavior of MMC is investigated for single SiC fiber reinforced aluminium alloy under the different loading direction, that is, longitudinal and transverse loading. Acoustic emission(AE) technique has been also used to detect the signals corresponding to each microscopic deformation behavior under the loading. Special attention is given to AE characteristics associated with interfacial debonding between fiber and matrix under the different leading direction.
[en] In this paper, the SH-wave scattering by the internal cavity using Boundary Element Method is studied. The effects of defect shape on transmitted and reflected fields are considered. The effects of distance between internal cavity and internal point in infinite domain are also investigated. Numerical calculations by the BEM have been carried out to predict the near field and far field solutions of scattered fields of ultrasonic SH-wave. These far field solutions of frequency domain have been transformed into the waveforms of time domain using inverse fast fourier transform. The presented results can be used to improve the detection sensitivity and pursue quantitative nondestructive evaluation for inverse problem.
[en] Rivets are typical structural features that are potential initiation sites for fatigue crack due to combination of local stress concentration around rivet hole and moisture trapping. For the viewpoint of structural assurance, it is crucial to evaluate the size of crack around rivets by appropriate nondestructive techniques. Guided waves, which direct wave energy along the plate, carry information about the material in their path and offer a potentially more efficient tool for nondestructive inspection of structural material. Neural network that is considered to be the most suitable for pattern recognition and has been used by researchers in NDE field to classify different types of flaws and flaw size. In this study, crack size determination around rivet through a neural network based on the back-propagation algorithm has been done by extracting some feature from time-domain waveforms of ultrasonic Lamb wave for Al 2024-T3 skin panel of aircraft. Special attention was paid to reduce the coupling effect between transducer and specimen by extracting some features related to only time component data in ultrasonic waveform. It was demonstrated clearly that features extraction based on time component data of the time-domain waveform of Lamb wave was very useful to determine crack size initiated from rivet hole through neural network.
[en] Electromagnetic methods(eddy current technique) of nondestructive testing are widely used in various industries for characterization of materials and detection of flaws. These methods are based on measurable changes in the electrical and magnetic properties(conductivity and permeability) of materials caused by the interaction with applied and induced fields. In this study, finite element analysis has been done to predict eddy current probe signal for steam generator tube containing a notch defect. The predicted eddy current signal is compared with experimental one.