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[en] High-temperature ignition is essential for the ignition and combustion of energetic metal fuels, including aluminum and magnesium particles which are protected by their high-melting-temperature oxides. A plasma torch characterized by an ultrahigh-temperature plasma plume fulfills such high-temperature ignition conditions. A new steam plasma igniter is designed and successfully validated by aluminum power ignition and combustion tests. The steam plasma rapidly stabilizes in both plasma and steam jet modes. Parametric investigation of the steam plasma jet is conducted in terms of arc strength. A high-speed camera and an oscilloscope method visualize the discharge characteristics, and optical emission spectroscopy measures the thermochemical properties of the plasma jet. The diatomic molecule OH fitting method, the Boltzmann plot method, and short exposure capturing with an intensified charge coupled device record the axial distributions of the rotational gas temperature, excitation temperature, and OH radical distribution, respectively. The excitation temperature at the nozzle tip is near 5500 K, and the gas temperature is 5400 K. (paper)
[en] In this review work, energy harvesting methods for waste heat with small temperature differences between heat source and sink are discussed. At present, many methods are tried and employed to utilize this type of waste heat. A typical example is found in a conventional power generation system. By utilizing this type of waste heat, additional energy can be produced in regular power generation systems. Up to this point, two energy harvesting methods have been introduced and applied for the use with this type of waste heat. One is a method using an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) while the other is a method using a thermoelectric generation (TEG). An ORC is a Rankine cycle that can be applied to this type of waste heat using organic fluids such as refrigerants as working fluids instead of water used in a typical Ranking cycle. On the other hand, a TEG utilizes Peltier, Seebeck, and Thomson effects caused by the temperature difference between the heat source and sink for energy harvesting. In this work, various aspects associated with the use ORC and TEG for waste heat harvesting with small temperature differences between the heat source and sink.