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[en] The last coordination strategy of European economic policies for the next 10 years, 'Europe 2020', proposed in 2010 a target of increasing renewable energies up to 20% of the energy mix (12% in 2013), and an increasing of 20% of pre-existing and coming infrastructures energy efficiency. It is clear that for today and tomorrow, even if ambitious environmental aims planned by Brussels will be achieve in 2020, fossil energies will continue to play a leading role in the European economy (forecasts of the International Energy Agency for 2050 give a gap between 50% and 35% of fossil energies in the OECD depending of the scenarios). A sustainable and secured supplying in hydrocarbons will so stay a strategic matter of fact for the European Union in a deeply changing economic environment (hydrocarbon falling prices from 100$/barrel in June 2014 to 30$/barrel today)
[en] Angola is one of the most important African oil provider. Hydrocarbon exports represent half of the GDP, two thirds of State revenues, and almost 90 pc of exports. With its level of corruption, Angola therefore displays the features of a resource curse. The author discusses whether this country is able to escape from this curse through a struggle against corruption and with the support of foreign investment. The author proposes a brief overview of a turbulent political history related to hydrocarbon resources since the independence in 1975 and the long civil war which ended in 2002. He evokes the objectives of the first visit of an Angolese president in France in May 2018, and then outlines the necessity for this country to maintain and increase its crude oil production within a favourable context. But the country is still facing difficulties which are highlighted
[en] Guyana, a former British colony, is a small developing south American country (160. world GDP), located between Brazil, Venezuela and Surinam. This article discusses the development of several offshore oil exploration fields (already nine successful discoveries and other promising prospects) by Exxon Mobil, offshore the coasts of this country. Whereas the economy of Guyana is now mainly based on the primary sector (agriculture with 30 pc of the GDP and gold and bauxite deposits), the exploitation of these oil resources (maybe up to 750.000 barrels a day for less than 800.000 inhabitants) may transform this economy into a rent economy. Thus, the author describes the evolving political scene, and evokes the problem raised by this un-hoped windfall and boundary tensions with Venezuela
[en] The 21. annual World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) reveals a world struggling to balance the desire for continued economic growth with the need to take deliberate and drastic steps against climate change. In 2018, global energy consumption rose 2.3 percent - nearly twice the average rate since 2010 - as driven by a robust worldwide economy. Despite the rapid growth of renewables in some regions, oil, gas and coal accounted for nearly three-quarters of the increase in total energy demand, their highest share in five years. As a result, greenhouse gas emissions climbed 2 percent globally, a significant break from the plateau of 2014 to 2016. While renewables remain the fastest-growing energy source worldwide, investments during the first half of 2019 declined 14 percent compared with the same period in 2018. Population growth, as well as a lack of anticipated technical breakthroughs over the next two decades, further contribute to a bleak medium- and long-term landscape. This year's WEMO report explores these issues in greater detail and presents new ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a long-term strategy that balances growth and change - and draws opportunity from crisis.
[en] This WEMO edition reviews an exceptional period with two distinctive phases: - In 2019 worldwide economic slowdown combined with energy transition measures resulted in some improvements regarding climate change objectives. However, the world was not on track to meet the 2015 Paris agreement objectives. - In 2020 our planet suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis that followed, plunging our world into a long period of uncertainty. This year's World Energy Markets Observatory report explores how the energy sector can balance these competing priorities. Here we present practical ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a strategy that builds short-term resiliency while improving long-term sustainability.