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[en] The United Kingdom chose to leave the European Union at a crucial moment for the Energy Union, and in a period when the necessity of leading a coherent energy transition is strongly shared by EU countries. In the light of this conjunction of events, this study analyses the determining factors of the UK energy policy. The industrial revolution started in England, a country endowed with abundant coal supplies but also with robust policies and the right technical, economic and social conditions for making the most out of these natural resources. Likewise, the UK developed effective domestic and foreign policies in the first half of the 20. century and successfully managed the second industrial revolution, which was based on the use of oil and electricity. The UK energy system has gone through significant changes over the past forty years, with the gradual phase out of coal, the development of oil and gas production in the North Sea, the transformation of the electricity system, the re-building of a credible nuclear strategy and the rise of a low-carbon economy. These changes have been implemented at a reasonable cost, at least compared to the cost incurred by the other EU energy systems. The consistency and stability of the UK energy policies are striking, and one must admit that they are driven by a great sense of pragmatism. They are developed through trial and error and their results are openly debated and confronted to the three objectives of having secure, affordable and sustainable energy supplies. There is no doubt about who is the main beneficiary from these policies: it should always be the UK national community. Its interests are well-defended, government after government, and this national focus is probably the main reason why the UK energy policy appears to be very consistent. The EU has often tried to replicate the UK initiatives in the field of energy, but probably without taking proper account of the specificities of the UK context
[en] In 2009 the fundamentals of the European gas industry were challenged by the break-through of shale gas in the United-States and a drop in gas demand in Europe. De-correlation of gas markets and oil indexed long term contracts prices challenged the historical means to finance needed infrastructures. In the years to come, gas will play in increasing role in electricity generation, driven by CO_2 emission reduction targets and the need for renewables intermittency backup. The gas industry has to re-invent tools to allow infrastructures development. Among those, indexing long term gas contracts to de-carbonised electricity production could more accurately reflect the final market of such gas as well as maintain the long term producer/customer relationships
[en] The nuclear revival is a fact, in Europe and the rest of the world. We are delighted at this. Today, all eyes are on the United Kingdom where the Government intends to do more than merely replace twenty-three aging power plants. The challenge facing them is considerable - Mr. Hutton, Britain's Minister for Trade and Industry, estimates that the work will generate 100,000 jobs. It is to be hoped that the soon-to-end Franco-British summit meeting will have strengthened understanding between the two countries. This would augur well for the French Presidency of the European Union which hopes to launch debate on a common energy policy within the European Council. Since the United Kingdom took the decision to re-launch the construction of nuclear reactors, France is no longer alone; it has a new ally in the nuclear debate. The British decision is also seen as encouraging by all the companies that wish to develop nuclear technology. This development is not only manifest in the United Kingdom; in Germany and a number of countries in Central and Eastern Europe, there is an obvious, if latent, desire to enter this sector. This document gathers the Proceedings of two symposiums: - the March 2008 conference on 'The Revival of Nuclear Energy, a challenge for the European Union' - and the November 2008 Conference on 'Nuclear safety: a worldwide Public Good'. Contents: Foreword by Claude Fischer; Introduction by Philippe Herzog. Part A: The revival of nuclear energy, a challenge for Europe: Partnerships, Speakers list, Synthesis for decision-makers by Andre Ferron and Michel Cruciani, 1 Address and 3 sessions, Opening Address by Dominique Ristori, First round table: Conditions to re-launch the nuclear industry in Europe, role of companies, banks and public institutions, Second round table: The need for a European energy mix and the necessity to improve the European common Market Model Last round table: The conditions for a European foreign energy policy, Speech of Anne Lauvergeon, The positions of institutions actors, Hearing of Pierre-Franck Chevet, Speech by Santiago San Antonio, Hearing of Urska Dolinsek, Speeches of Mikhail Yakovlev and Kirill Komarov, Conclusions by Jean-Pierre Jouyet. Part B: Nuclear safety, a worldwide Public Good: Conference Partnerships, Speakers list, 1 Address and 2 sessions, Opening Address by Andre-Claude Lacoste, First round table: Under what conditions can the nuclear industry be 'implanted' in emerging countries?, Second round table: Defining an international framework?, Debates with Peter Faross and Guillaume Gillet, Conclusions by Philippe Herzog
[en] This publication proposes the 22. World Energy congress statements (official statement, the discussions of the future energy leader's programme, contribution of young French students and researchers, what works and does not work in energy efficiency policies in the world) and indicates its publications (the World Energy Trilemna, and World Energy Scenarios to 2050). The contributions of French speakers are then proposed on the following themes: vision and scenarios for the future, identifying business opportunities with resources and technologies, the energy trilemma or policy solutions to secure prosperity, and securing a sustainable energy future. Other contributions by company and government representatives are provided.
[en] The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that goes beyond the plans and targets announced by governments and policy makers. The Energy Transition Scenario assumes the implementation of those measures that are currently the most technically, economically, and politically mature for large-scale roll-out of energy efficiency and renewable energies. This Scenario assumes no major technology breakthrough, but the deployment of existing technologies and sound energy efficiency policies and measures across all Mediterranean countries. (authors)
[en] After a contribution of the minister of Ecology and Sustainable Development, a first round table discussed the role of renewable energies in heat production. Then, after a contribution of the minister of Industry, a second round table discussed the role of biofuels. A contribution focuses on innovative sectors and on niche sectors. The third round table discussed the roles of wind and hydraulic energies. The first day is completed by contributions of other ministers (Research and new technologies). Three round tables were held on the second day on the question of risk management, on the solutions regarding wastes, and on the role of nuclear energy in the future, each round table being followed by a debate.